Advertisement

Establishing a behavioral model for achieving good food safety behaviors by foodservice employees in Taiwan

  • Wen-Hwa KoEmail author
  • Shao-Hua Ni
Research Article
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

This study explores food safety and sanitation-related competence, self-efficacy, overall behavioral motives, behavioral intentions, behaviors, and the effects of the organizational environment on foodservice employees. Significant positive correlations are found between food safety and sanitation-related competence, self-efficacy, overall behavioral motive, behavioral intention, and food safety-related behavior. A structural equation modeling analysis of those paramters indicated that competence positively affects self-efficacy and overall behavioral motive. The affect on the behavior applied for both self-efficacy and overall behavioral motive and positively influenced behavioral intention and behavior. Thus, the model we obtained a goodness of fit. Improving the organization environment can increase the influence of self-efficacy and behavioral intention on behavior.

Keywords

Food safety Sanitation Behavior model Foodservice employees 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Funding was provided by MOST, Taiwan (Grant No. MOST 105 - 2511 - S - 030 - 001 - MY2).

References

  1. Acikel C, Ogur R, Yaren H, Gocgeldi E, Ucar M, Kir T (2008) The hygiene training of food handlers at a teaching hospital. Food Control 19:186–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajzen I (1985) Form intention to action: a theory of planned behavior. In: Kuhl J, Beckmann J (eds) Action control form cognition to behavior. Springer, New York, pp 11–39Google Scholar
  3. Ajzen I (1988) Attitudes, personality and behavior. Open University Press, Milton KeynesGoogle Scholar
  4. Ajzen I (1991a) The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 50:179–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ajzen I (1991b) The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 50(2):179–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ajzen I, Fishbein M (1980) Understanding Attitudes and predicting social behavior. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson JC, Gerbing DW (1988) Structural modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychol Bull 103:411–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashkanasy NM, Wilderom CPM, Peterson MF (2000) Handbook of organizational culture and climate. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagozzi RP, Yi Y (1988) On the evaluation of structural equation models. J Acad Mark Sci 16:74–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bandura A (1977) Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 84(2):191–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bandura A (1982) Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. Am Psychol 37:122–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bandura A (1986) Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  13. Barth S (2004) How to prevent food and beverage liability. Lodg Hosp 60(7):36–38Google Scholar
  14. Beavers A, Richards J, McCallum RS, Davidson PM, Skolits G, Brandon M (2013) Measuring self-efficacy of food safety in adolescent populations. Food Prot Trends 33(3):127–132Google Scholar
  15. Beavers AS, Murphy L, Richards JK (2015) Investigating change in adolescent self-efficacy of food safety through educational interventions. J Food Sci Educ 14(2):54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brief AP (1998) Attitudes in and around organizations. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  17. Byham WC, Moyer RP (1996) Using competencies to build a successful organization. Development Dimensions International Inc, BridgevilleGoogle Scholar
  18. Byrd-Bredbenner C, Maurer J, Wheatley V, Schaffner D, Bruhn C, Blalock L (2007) Food safety self-reported behaviors and cognitions of young adults: results of a national study. J Food Prot 70(8):1917–1926PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carrasco H, Martínez-Tur V, Peiró JM, Moliner C (2012) Validation of a measure of service climate in organizations. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones 28(2):69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark J, Crandall P, Reynolds J (2019) Exploring the influence of food safety climate indicators on handwashing practices of restaurant food handlers. Int J Hosp Manag 77:187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Collins JE (1997) Impact of changing lifestyles on the emergence/reemergence of foodborne pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis 3:471–479PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davis FD (1989) Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Q 13(3):318–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Boeck E, Jacxsens L, Bollaerts M, Vlerick P (2015) Food safety climate in food processing organizations: development and validation of a self-assessment tool. Trends Food Sci Technol 46:242–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Boeck E, Jacxsens L, Bollaerts M, Uyttendaele M, Vlerick P (2016) Interplay between food safety climate, food safety management system and microbiological hygiene in farm butcheries and affiliated butcher shops. Food Control 65:78–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Boeck E, Mortier AV, Jacxsens L, Dequidt L, Vlerick P (2017) Towards an extended food safety culture model: studying the moderating role of burnout and jobstress, the mediating role of food safety knowledge and motivation in the relation between food safety climate and food safety behavior. Trends Food Sci Technol 62:202–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. DeBess EE, Pippert E, Angulo FJ, Cieslak PR (2009) Food handler assessment in oregon. Foodborne Pathog Dis 6(3):329–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fishbein M, Ajzen I (1975) Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research. Addison-Wesley, MAGoogle Scholar
  28. Fishbein M, Ajzen I (2010) Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis), New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Fornell C, Larcker DF (1981) Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. J Mark Res 18:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Greig JD, Todd EC, Bartleson CA, Michaels BS (2007) Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 1. Description of the problem, methods, and agents involved. J Food Prot 70(7):1752–1761PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Haapala I, Probart C (2004) Food safety knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors among middle school students. J Nutr Educ Behav 36(2):71–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hair JF, Black WD, Babin BJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL (2006) Multivariate data analysis, 6th edn. Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  33. Hinsz VH, Nickell GS (2004) A motivational model of product safety and security behaviors. In: Paper presented at the 19th annual meeting of the society for industrial and organizational psychology, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  34. Hinsz VB, Nickell GS (2015) The prediction of workers’ food safety intentions and behavior with job attitudes and the reasoned action approach. J Work Organ Psychol 31:91–100Google Scholar
  35. Hinsz VB, Nickell GS, Park ES (2007) The role of work habits in the moti-vation of food safety behaviors. J Exp Psychol Appl 13:105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hislop N, Shaw K (2009) Food safety knowledge retention study. J Food Prot 72(2):431–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hu L, Bentler P (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equat Model 6:1–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ko WH (2013) The relationship among food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported HACCP practices in restaurant employees. Food Control 29(1):192–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ko WH, Hsiao IF, Ni SH (2016) Establishing competency indicators for food industry workers on food safety and hygiene. In: Apac CHRIE 2016, May 11–13. BangkokGoogle Scholar
  40. Lillquist DR, McCabe ML, Church KH (2005) A comparison of traditional handwashing training with active handwashing training in the food handler industry. J Environ Health 67(6):13–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. McIntyre L, Vallaster L, Wilcott L, Henderson SB, Kosatsky T (2013) Evaluation of food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported hand washing practices in FOODSAFE trained and untrained food handlers in British Columbia, Canada. Food Control 30(1):150–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Osaili TM, Abu Jamous DO, Obeidat BA, Bawadi HA, Tayyem RF, Subih J (2012) Food safety knowledge among food workers in restaurants in Jordan. Food Control 31:145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pacholewicz E, Barus SAS, Swart A, Havelaar AH, Lipman LJA, Luning PA (2016) Influence of food handlers’ compliance with procedures of poultry carcasses contamination: a case study concerning evisceration in broiler slaughterhouses. Food Control 68:367–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Park SH, Kwak TK, Chang HJ (2010) Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations. Nutr Res Pract 4(1):58–68PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Parry BS (1998) Just what is a competency? And why should you care? Training 35(6):58–64Google Scholar
  46. Powell DA, Jacob CJ, Chapman BJ (2011) Enhancing food safety culture to reduce rates of foodborne illness. Food Control 22:817–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rentsch JR (1990) Climate and culture: interaction and qualitative differences in organizational meanings. J Appl Psychol 75:668–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Roberts KR, Barrett BB (2011) Restaurant managers’ beliefs about food safety training: an application of the theory of planned behavior. J Foodserv Bus Res 14(3):206–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Scallan E, Griffin PM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Hoekstra RM (2011) Foodborne illness acquired in the United States–unspecified agents. Emerg Infect Dis 17:16–22PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Seaman P, Eves A (2006) The management of food safety-the role of food hygiene training in the UK service sector. Hosp Manag 25:278–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Seaman P, Eves A (2008) Food hygiene training in small to medium-sized care settings. Int J Environ Health Res 18(5):365–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Smith L, Sirsat SA, Neal JA (2014) Does food safety training for non-profit food service volunteers improve food safety knowledge and behavior? Food Prot Trends 34(3):156–165Google Scholar
  53. Spencer LM, Spencer SM (1993) Competence at work: model for superior performance. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Taylor MR (2011) Will the food safety modernization act help prevent outbreaks of foodborne illness? N Engl J Med 365:e18.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1109388 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Triandis HC (1977) Interpersonal behavior. Brooks/Cole, Monterey, CAGoogle Scholar
  56. World Health Organization (2015). Burden of foodborne diseases. https://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/foodborne-diseases/ferg/en/. Accessed June 2109
  57. York VK, Brannon LA, Shanklin CW, Roberts KR, Barrett BB, Howells AD (2009) Intervention improves restaurant employees’ food safety compliance rates. Int J Contemp Hosp Manag 21(4):459–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang ZJ, Li XQ (2010) Competency assessment study based on IPCA-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Mongolian Natural Science FoundationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Restaurant, Hotel and Institutional ManagementFu-Jen UniversityNew Taipei CityTaiwan

Personalised recommendations