Advertisement

Biosecurity, risk and policy: a New Zealand perspective

  • Stephen L. Goldson
Conference Proceedings "Decision Making and Science"

Abstract

The term ‘biosecurity’, in New Zealand, broadly refers to the need to prevent the establishment and/or the impact of unwanted organisms in all ecosystems. The New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) has operational and policy responsibility for biosecurity across all of the major sectors of the economy and environment. Science is recognised as essential to advancing New Zealand’s biosecurity capability beyond that which can be gained via organisational revision and optimisation. A multi-organisational research group known as ‘Better Border Biosecurity’ was established in 2005 specifically to provide the necessary strategic research to underpin MAF’s and other ‘end-users’ operational and policy requirements. However, this can only work if there is a strong partnership between the contributing parties. Biosecurity in New Zealand is not without its issues. There is a varyingly asserted expectation that there should be readily available biosecurity measures that, while having no effect on trade, will work flawlessly. An unfortunate corollary of this is that the system may be thought of as having ‘failed’ when incursions occur or they cannot be effectively eradicated. Further, there remains an abiding issue for all in biosecurity around how to measure success in terms of incursions averted. Also, there is now community resistance to some measures taken to eradicate incursions, particularly after two (successful) aerial spraying programmes in Auckland against lymantriid moths. Care is needed to define what biosecurity covers in an international sense and New Zealand’s legislative framework for biosecurity bears ongoing scrutiny if clarity of operational responsibility between MAF and the New Zealand Environmental Risk Management Authority is to continue to progress.

Keywords

Biosecurity Border Ecosystems Policy Pest Risk 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I gratefully acknowledge the information and advice provided by Dr Geoff Ridley, Science Manager New Organisms, the Environmental Risk Management Authority of New Zealand and by Dr Matt McGlone, Science Leader, Biodiversity and Conservation, Landcare Research Manaaki Whenua Christchurch, New Zealand. I also sincerely thank Professor John Mumford, Professor of Natural Resource Management at Imperial College London for his astute editorial comments along with those of one other anonymous referee who attended the 2010 Berlin Conference on Decision Making and Science.

Conflict of interest

The author S.L. Goldson declares that the research was not sponsored and that he has no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Anon (2009) Doing business with New Zealand. New Zealand Trade and Enterprise. http://business.newzealand.com/Economy/15264.aspx
  2. Barlow ND, Goldson SL (2002) Alien invertebrates in New Zealand. In: Pimentel D (ed) Biological invasions: economic and environmental costs of alien plant, animal, and microbe species. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  3. Barratt BIP, Evans AA, Ferguson CM, Barker GM, McNeill MR, Phillips CB (1997) Laboratory nontarget host range of the introduced parasitoids Microctonus aethiopoides and Microctonus hyperodae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) compared with field parasitism in New Zealand. Environ Entomol 26:694–702Google Scholar
  4. CABI (2010) Crop protection compendium. Reproduced from the Crop Protection Compendium, 2010 Edition. © CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 2010. http://www.cabi.org/cpc/default.aspx?site=161&page=2586 Google Scholar
  5. FAO (2007) FAO biosecurity toolkit. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome. ISBN: 9789251057292Google Scholar
  6. Gerard PJ, Goldson SL, Hardwick S, Addison PJ, Willoughby BE (2009) The bionomics of an invasive species Sitona lepidus during its establishment in New Zealand. Bull Entomol Res 100:339–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goldson SL, Phillips CB, McNeill MR, Barlow ND (1997) The potential of parasitoid strains in biological control: observations to date on Microctonus spp. intraspecific variation in New Zealand. Agric Ecosyst Environ 64:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Holloway JD, Stork NE (1991) The dimensions of biodiversity: the use of invertebrates as indicators of human impacts. In: Hawkesworth DL (ed) The biodiversity of organisms and invertebrates: its role in sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of the 1st workshop on the ecological foundations of sustainable agriculture (WEFSA 1), London, UK, 26–27 July, 1990, 37–61Google Scholar
  9. Johnson PR (2010) Causes and consequences of changes to New Zealand’s fungal biota. N Z J Ecol 34:175–184Google Scholar
  10. Jordan N (2010) How to enhance the value of New Zealand’s investment in Crown Research Institutes. Report of the Crown Research Institute Taskforce. http://www.morst.govt.nz/current-work/CRI-Taskforce/Final-Report/
  11. Kriticos DJ, Phillips CB, Suckling DM (2005) Improving border biosecurity: potential economic benefits to New Zealand. N Z Plant Prot 58:1–6Google Scholar
  12. MAF (2003) Tiakina Aotearoa Protect New Zealand—The Biosecurity Strategy for New Zealand. http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/biosec/sys/strategy/biostrategy/biostrategynz
  13. MAF (2007) A Biosecurity Science Strategy for New Zealand—Mahere Rautaki Putaiao Whakamaru. http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/files/biosec/sys/strategy/2007-biosecurity-science-strategy.pdf
  14. McGlone MS (2006) Becoming New Zealanders: immigration and the formation of the biota. In: Allen RB, Lee WG (eds) Biological invasions in New Zealand. Ecological studies, vol 186. Springer, Berlin, pp 17–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. MFE (1997) The State of the Environment Report 1997. New Zealand Ministry for the Environment. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/ser/ser1997/index.html
  16. New Zealand Parliament (2008) Biosecurity amendment bill (no 4), hazardous substances and new organisms amendment bill (no 2)—third readings. Hansard volume 646, p 15356. http://www.parliament.nz/en-NZ/PB/Debates/Debates/e/f/d/48HansD_20080403_00000768-Biosecurity-Amendment-Bill-No-4-Hazardous.htm
  17. Ridley GS, Bain J, Bulman LS, Dick MA, Kay MK (2000) Threats to New Zealand’s indigenous forest from exotic pathogens and pests. New Zealand Department of Conservation, Science for Conservation No. 142Google Scholar
  18. Stephens AEA, Suckling DM, Burnip GM (2007) Field records of painted apple moth (Teia anartoides Walker: Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on plants and inanimate objects in Auckland, New Zealand. Aust J Entomol 46:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Stevens G (1990) Geological evolution and biotic links in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic of the Southwest Pacific. In: Acta XX international ornithological congress, vol 1, pp 361–382Google Scholar
  20. Upton SD (2001) Upton-on-line. 5 April 2001Google Scholar
  21. Wilmshurst JM, Anderson JA, Higham TFG, Worthy TH (2008) Dating the late prehistoric dispersal of Polynesians to New Zealand using the commensal Pacific rate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:7676–7680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Worner SP, Walker K, Frampton ER (2004) Assessment of Invasive invertebrates of threat to indigenous terrestrial ecosystems. MAF Operational Report, August 2004Google Scholar
  23. Worner SP, Ikeda T, Leday G (2010) Improving the predictive performance of correlative static species distribution models. In: 4th international pest risk modelling and mapping workshop: pest risk in a changing world, Port Douglas, Australia, 23–25 August 2010Google Scholar
  24. Worthy TH, Holdaway RN (2002) The lost world of the moa: prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Better Border BiosecurityChristchurchNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations