Consumer neuroscience: an overview of an emerging discipline with implications for consumer policy

  • Peter Kenning
  • Marc Linzmajer


In recent years, interest in the integration and application of neuroscientific theories, concepts, findings and methods to the research discipline of consumer behavior has been increasing. The sub-discipline of consumer neuroscience that has resulted from that interest belongs to the innovative approach of neuroeconomics. Consumer neuroscience investigates problems of consumption and marketing through methods and findings from neuroscience. Conventional research in consumer behavior and marketing necessarily looked at the human organism as being a “black box” which cannot be assessed directly, or physiologically. This was a time when research mainly used theoretical constructs to interpret these bodily processes and resulting behavior. More recently, however, modern techniques and methods in neuroscience have facilitated a far more direct look into the “black box” of the organism as the basis for the sub-discipline of consumer neuroscience. Consumer neuroscience, therefore, can significantly benefit research in the field of consumer behavior, particularly in the attempt to better understand human behavior in decision-making processes. Although consumer neuroscience is a fledgling discipline, it constitutes a complementing advancement toward more comprehensive testing and expansion of theory. Against this background, the primary goal of the paper is to provide an overview of methods, findings, and implications of selected studies in consumer neuroscience. Furthermore, we integrate aspects of consumer policy and neuroethics, discussing the possible implications of these insights for consumer protection.


Consumer neuroscience Neuromarketing Neuroethics Consumer policy 

Consumer Neuroscience – Überblick über einen neuen transdisziplinären Ansatz mit verbraucherpolitischen Implikationen


In den letzten Jahren konnte eine sich verstärkende Integration neurowissenschaftlicher Theorien, Konzepte, Erkenntnisse und Methoden in die Konsumentenverhaltensforschung beobachtet werden. Die damit angesprochene Consumer Neuroscience ist ein Teilgebiet der Neuroökonomik und untersucht konsum- und marketingrelevante Probleme mit Methoden und Erkenntnissen der Hirnforschung. Die klassische Konsumentenverhaltens- und Marketingforschung betrachtete den menschlichen Organismus notgedrungen als eine „Black-Box”, in welche kein direkter Einblick möglich ist. Stattdessen nutzte man hauptsächlich theoretische Konstrukte, um latente Prozesse und die mit ihnen verbundenen Verhaltensweisen beschreiben und erklären zu können. Ein direkterer Blick in die „Black-Box” des Organismus wird nun mit Hilfe moderner Techniken und Methoden der Hirnforschung möglich, die auf dem Gebiet Consumer Neuroscience zum Einsatz kommen. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden in vorliegendem Beitrag ausgewählte Methoden und Ergebnisse aus dem Bereich Consumer Neuroscience vorgestellt. Abschließend werden verbraucherpolitische und neuro-ethische Aspekte integriert und mögliche Implikationen dieser Erkenntnisse für die Verbraucherpolitik diskutiert.


  1. Aharon I, Etcoff N, Ariely D, Chabris CF, O’Connor E, Breiter HC (2001) Beautiful faces have variable reward value: fMRI and behavioral evidence. Neuron 32:537–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlert D (2005) Distributionspolitik, 4th edn. UTB, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  3. Ailawadi KL, Keller KL (2004) Understanding retail branding: conceptual insights and research priorities. J Retail 80:331–342Google Scholar
  4. Ambler T, Burne T (1999) The impact of affect on memory of advertising. J Advert Res 39:25–34Google Scholar
  5. Ambler T, Ioannides A, Rose S (2000) Brands on the brain: neuro-images of advertising. Bus Strategy Rev 11:17Google Scholar
  6. Anderson EW, Fornell C, Lehmann DR (1994) Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: findings from Sweden. J Mark 58:53Google Scholar
  7. Ariely D, Berns GS (2010) Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business. Nat Rev Neurosci 11:284–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Backhaus K, Mühlfeld K, Van Doorn J (2001) Consumer perspectives on standardization in international advertising: a student sample. J Advert Res 41:53–61Google Scholar
  9. Bagozzi RP (1991) The role of psychophysiology in consumer research. In: Robertson TS, Kassarjian HH (eds) Handbook of consumer behavior. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, pp 124–161Google Scholar
  10. Bailetti AJ, Litva PF (1995) Integrating customer requirements into product designs. J Prod Innov Manag 12:3–15Google Scholar
  11. Basso D, Lotze M, Vitale L, Ferreri F, Bisiacchi P, Olivetti Belardinelli M, Rossini PM, Birbaumer N (2006) The role of prefrontal cortex in visuo-spatial planning: a repetitive TMS study. Exp Brain Res 171:411–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bechara A, Damasio AR (2005) The somatic marker hypothesis: a neural theory of economic decision. Games Econ Behav 52:336–372Google Scholar
  13. Bechara A, Damasio H, Damasio AR (2000) Emotion, decision making and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 10:295–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Blakeslee S (2004) If your brain has a ‘buy button,’ what pushes it? The New York Times, October 19. Accessed 4 July 2010
  15. Bloch PH (1995) Seeking the ideal form: product design and consumer response. J Mark 59:16Google Scholar
  16. Braeutigam S (2005) Neuroeconomics—from neural systems to economic behaviour. Brain Res Bull 67:355–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Braeutigam S, McNab F, Swithenby S, Bailey A (2001a) Neural correlates of single word processing: an MEG study. Neuroimage 13(Suppl 1):510Google Scholar
  18. Braeutigam S, Stins JF, Rose SP, Swithenby SJ, Ambler T (2001b) Magnetoencephalographic signals identify stages in real-life decision processes. Neural Plast 8:241–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Braeutigam S, Rose SP, Swithenby SJ, Ambler T (2004) The distributed neuronal systems supporting choice-making in real-life situations: differences between men and women when choosing groceries detected using magnetoencephalography. Eur J Neurosci 20:293–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brandstätter E, Gigerenzer G, Hertwig R (2006) The priority heuristic: making choices without trade-offs. Psychol Rev 113:409–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Breiter HC, Aharon I, Kahneman D, Dale A, Shizgal P (2001) Functional imaging of neural responses to expectancy and experience of monetary gains and losses. Neuron 30:619–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cacioppo JT, Tassinary LG (1990) Inferring psychological significance from physiological signals. Am Psychol 45:16–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cacioppo JT, Rourke PA, Marshall-Goodell BS, Tassinary LG, Baron RS (1990) Rudimentary physiological effects of mere observation. Psychophysiology 27:177–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Camerer C, Loewenstein G, Prelec D (2005) Neuroeconomics: how neuroscience can inform economics. J Econ Lit 43:9–64Google Scholar
  25. Choi SC (1991) Price competition in a channel structure with a common retailer. Mark Sci 10:271Google Scholar
  26. Chorvat T, McCabe K, Smith V (2005) Law and neuroeconomics. Supreme Court Econ Rev 13:35–62Google Scholar
  27. Commercial Alert (2003) Commercial alert asks Emory University to halt neuromarketing experiments. Commercial Alert News Release. Accessed 3 July 2010
  28. Constantinides E (2006) The marketing mix revisited: towards the 21st century marketing. J Mark Manag 22:407–438Google Scholar
  29. Cooper RG (1979) The dimensions of industrial new product success and failure. J Mark 43:93–103Google Scholar
  30. Damasio AR (1994) Descartes’ error: emotion, reason and the human brain. Crosset/Putnam, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Debener S, Ullsperger M, Siegel M, Engel AK (2006) Single-trial EEG-fMRI reveals the dynamics of cognitive function. Trends Cogn Sci 10:558–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Deppe M, Schwindt W, Kramer J, Kugel H, Plassmann H, Kenning P, Ringelstein EB (2005a) Evidence for a neural correlate of a framing effect: bias-specific activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during credibility judgments. Brain Res Bull 67:413–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Deppe M, Schwindt W, Kugel H, Plassmann H, Kenning P (2005b) Nonlinear responses within the medial prefrontal cortex reveal when specific implicit information influences economic decision making. J Neuroimaging 15:171–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Deppe M, Schwindt W, Pieper A, Kugel H, Plassmann H, Kenning P, Deppe K, Ringelstein EB (2007) Anterior cingulate reflects susceptibility to framing during attractiveness evaluation. Neuroreport 18:1119–1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Editorial (2004) Brain scam? Nat Neurosci 7:683–683Google Scholar
  36. Eliashberg J, Steinberg R (1987) Marketing-production decisions in an industrial channel of distribution. Manag Sci 33:981–1000Google Scholar
  37. Erk S, Spitzer M, Wunderlich AP, Galley L, Walter H (2002) Cultural objects modulate reward circuitry. Neuroreport 13:2499–2503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ernst H, Hoyer WD, Krafft M, Krieger K (2010) Customer relationship management and company performance—the mediating role of new product performance. J Acad Mark Sci 38 (forthcoming)Google Scholar
  39. Evanschitzky H, Kenning P, Vogel V (2004) Consumer price knowledge in the German retail market. J Prod Brand Manag 13:390–405Google Scholar
  40. Farah MJ (2002) Emerging ethical issues in neuroscience. Nat Neurosci 5:1123–1129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Farah MJ (2007) Social, legal, and ethical implications of cognitive neuroscience: “neuroethics” for short. J Cogn Neurosci 19:363–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Farah MJ, Wolpe PR (2004) Monitoring and manipulating brain function: new neuroscience technologies and their ethical implications. Hastings Cent Rep 34:35–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fehr E, Fischbacher U, Kosfeld M (2005) Neuroeconomic foundations of trust and social preferences: Initial evidence. Am Econ Rev 95(2):346–351Google Scholar
  44. Fridlund AJ, Izard CE (1983) Electromyographic studies of facial expression of emotions and patterns of emotions. In: Cacioppo JT, Petty RE (eds) Social psychophysiology. Guilford, New York, pp 243–286Google Scholar
  45. Fugate DL (2007) Neuromarketing: a layman’s look at neuroscience and its potential application to marketing practice. J Consum Mark 24:385–394Google Scholar
  46. Fugate DL (2008) Marketing services more effectively with neuromarketing research: a look into the future. J Serv Mark 22:170–173Google Scholar
  47. Gigerenzer G (1991) From tools to theories: a heuristic of discovery in cognitive psychology. Psychol Rev 98:254–267Google Scholar
  48. Glimcher PW, Camerer CF, Fehr E, Poldrack RA (2009) Introduction: A brief history of neuroeconomics. In: Paul WG, PhD, Colin FC, Ernst F, Russell AP (eds) Neuroeconomics. Academic Press, London, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  49. Goldstein DG, Gigerenzer G (2002) Models of ecological rationality: the recognition heuristic. Psychol Rev 109:75–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Groeppel-Klein A (2005) Arousal and consumer in-store behavior. Brain Res Bull 67:428–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Grosenick L, Greer S, Knutson B (2008) Interpretable classifiers for fMRI improve prediction of purchases. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 16:539–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Haier RJ, Siegel BV Jr, MacLachlan A, Soderling E, Lottenberg S, Buchsbaum MS (1992) Regional glucose metabolic changes after learning a complex visuospatial/motor task: a positron emission tomographic study. Brain Res 570:134–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hain C, Kenning P, Lehmann-Waffenschmidt M (2007) Neuroökonomie und Neuromarketing. Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium WiSt 36(10):501–508Google Scholar
  54. Heckman KE, Happel MD (2006) Mechanical detection of deception: A short review. In: Foundations for the Future. Intelligence Science Board PR, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) (ed) Educing information - interrogation: Science and art, vol December 2006. NDIC Press, Washington, DC, pp 63–93Google Scholar
  55. Helmholtz HLF (1853) Ueber einige Gesetze der Vertheilung elektrischer Strome in korperlichen Leitern mit Anwendung auf die thierischelektrischen Versuche. Annu Rev Phys Chem 89:211–233Google Scholar
  56. Howard JA, Sheth JN (1969) The theory of buyer behavior. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Hubert M (2010) Does neuroeconomics give new impetus to economic and consumer research? J Econ Psychol. doi: 10.1016/j.joep.2010.03.009
  58. Hubert M, Kenning P (2008) A current overview of consumer neuroscience. J Consum Behav 7:272–292Google Scholar
  59. Hubert M, Hubert M, Sommer J, Kenning P (2009) Consumer neuroscience—the effect of retail brands on the perception of product packaging. Mark Rev St Gallen 4:28–33Google Scholar
  60. Hubert M, Hubert M, Büttner O, Florack A, Kenning P (2011) Compulsive buying - also a male problem? Adv Consum Res 38 (forthcoming)Google Scholar
  61. Huettel SA, Payne JW, Yoon C, Gonzalez R, Bettman JR, Hedgcock W, Rao AR (2009a) Commentaries and rejoinder to “trade-off aversion as an explanation for the attraction effect: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study”. J Mark Res 46:14–24Google Scholar
  62. Huettel SA, Song AW, McCarthy G (2009b) Functional magnetic resonance imaging, 2nd edn. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  63. International Journal of Advertising (2010) Accessed 2 Aug 2010
  64. Ioannides AA, Liu L, Theofilou D, Dammers J, Burne T, Ambler T, Rose S (2000) Real time processing of affective and cognitive stimuli in the human brain extracted from MEG signals. Brain Topogr 13:11–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Jones LS (2007) The ethics of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Sci 315:1663–1664 (author reply 1663–1664)Google Scholar
  66. Kahneman D (2003) Maps of bounded rationality: psychology for behavioral economics. Am Econ Rev 93:1449–1475Google Scholar
  67. Kenning P (2008) The influence of general trust and specific trust on buying behaviour. Int J Retail Distrib Manag 36:461–476Google Scholar
  68. Kenning P, Plassmann H (2005) Neuroeconomics: an overview from an economic perspective. Brain Res Bull 67:343–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kenning P, Plassmann H (2009) How recent neuroscientific research could enhance marketing theory. IEEE Trans 16:532–538Google Scholar
  70. Kenning P, Plassmann H, Deppe M, Kugel H, Schwindt W (2002) The discovery of cortical relief. Field Res Neuromark 1:1–26Google Scholar
  71. Kenning P, Plassmann H, Ahlert D (2007a) Applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging for market research. Qual Mark Res Int J 10:135–152Google Scholar
  72. Kenning P, Plassmann H, Ahlert D (2007b) Consumer neuroscience—Implikationen neurowissenschaftlicher Forschung für das Marketing. Mark Z Forsch Praxis 29:57–68Google Scholar
  73. Kenning P, Plassmann H, Kugel H, Schwindt W, Pieper A, Deppe M (2007c) Neural correlates of attractive ads. In: Koschnik WJ (ed) Focus-Jahrbuch 2007, Schwerpunkt: Neuroökonomie, Neuromarketing, Neuromarktforschung. FOCUS Magazin Verlag, Munich, pp 287–298Google Scholar
  74. Kenning P, Deppe M, Schwindt W, Kugel H, Plassmann H (2009) The good, the bad and the forgotten—an fMRI-study on ad liking and ad memory. Adv Consum Res 36:4Google Scholar
  75. King-Casas B, Tomlin D, Anen C, Camerer CF, Quartz SR, Montague PR (2005) Getting to know you: reputation and trust in a two-person economic exchange. Science 308:78–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Klockenhoff J (2009) Ausgetrickst und angeschmiert: Gerd Billens Analyse von Kunden, Märkten und den Maßnahmen der Verbraucherpolitik. J Verbr Lebensm 4:425–426Google Scholar
  77. Knight J (2004) The truth about lying. Nature 428:692–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Knutson B, Peterson R (2005) Neurally reconstructing expected utility. Games Econ Behav 52:305–315Google Scholar
  79. Knutson B, Rick S, Wimmer GE, Prelec D, Loewenstein G (2007) Neural predictors of purchases. Neuron 53:147–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Koenigs M, Tranel D (2008) Prefrontal cortex damage abolishes brand-cued changes in cola preference. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 3:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kotler P, Keller KL (2006) Marketing management. Prentice-Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  82. Kroeber-Riel W (1979) Activation research: psychobiological approaches in consumer research. J Consum Res 5:240–250Google Scholar
  83. Kunzmann P (2010) Die Verantwortung des Verbrauchers und einige ihrer Grenzen. J Verbr Lebensm 5:1–5Google Scholar
  84. Kwong KK, Belliveau JW, Chesler DA, Goldberg IE, Weisskoff RM, Poncelet BP, Kennedy DN, Hoppel BE, Cohen MS, Turner R (1992) Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:5675–5679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Lee N, Chamberlain L (2007) Neuroimaging and psychophysiological measurement in organizational research: an agenda for research in organizational cognitive neuroscience. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1118:18–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lee E, Staelin R (1997) Vertical strategic interaction: implications for channel pricing strategy. Mark Sci 16:185Google Scholar
  87. Lee N, Broderick AJ, Chamberlain L (2007) What is ‘neuromarketing’? A discussion and agenda for future research. Int J Psychophysiol 63:199–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lichtenstein DR, Ridgway NM, Netemeyer RG (1993) Price perceptions and consumer shopping behavior: a field study. J Mark Res 30:234–245Google Scholar
  89. Logothetis NK (2008) What we can do and what we cannot do with fMRI. Nature 453:869–878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Logothetis NK, Pauls J, Augath M, Trinath T, Oeltermann A (2001) Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal. Nature 412:150–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. McClure SM, Li J, Tomlin D, Cypert KS, Montague LM, Montague PR (2004) Neural correlates of behavioral preference for culturally familiar drinks. Neuron 44:379–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Meenaghan T (1995) The role of advertising in brand image development. J Prod Brand Manag 4:23Google Scholar
  93. Meffert H, Burmann C, Kirchgeorg M (2008) Marketing. Grundlagen marktorientierter Unternehmensführung. Konzepte–Instrumente–Praxisbeispiele, 10th edn. Gabler, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  94. Milgrom P, Roberts J (1986) Price and advertising signals of product quality. J Political Econ 94:796–821Google Scholar
  95. Mitchell J, Kutin B, Macgeorge A (2001) Guidelines for consumer policy in central and eastern Europe. J Consum Policy 24:83–109Google Scholar
  96. Montague PR, Berns GS, Cohen JD, McClure SM, Pagnoni G, Dhamala M, Wiest MC, Karpov I, King RD, Apple N, Fisher RE (2002) Hyperscanning: simultaneous fmri during linked social interactions. Neuroimage 16:1159–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Möser A, Hoefkens C, Van Camp J, Verbeke W (2010) Simplified nutrient labelling: consumers’ perceptions in Germany and Belgium. J Verbr Lebensm 5:169–180Google Scholar
  98. Murphy ER, Illes J, Reiner PB (2008) Neuroethics of neuromarketing. J Consum Behav 7:293–302Google Scholar
  99. Newland MC, Pennypacker HS, Anger WK, Mele P (2003) Transferring behavioral technology across applications. Neurotoxicol Teratol 25:529–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. O’Doherty JP (2004) Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: insights from neuroimaging. Curr Opin Neurobiol 14:769–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Oehler A, Reisch LA (2008) Behavioral economics—eine neue Grundlage für Verbraucherpolitik? Eine Studie im Auftrag des Verbraucherzentrale Bundesverbandes, Verbraucherzentrale Bundesverband, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  102. Ofir C, Raghubir P, Brosh G, Monroe KB, Heiman A (2008) Memory-based store price judgments: the role of knowledge and shopping experience. J Retail 84:414–423Google Scholar
  103. Olbrich R, Buhr C-C (2007) Preisbindungsverbot und Wettbewerb auf dem Konsumgütersektor. wisu das Wirtschaftsstudium 36(11):1439–1445Google Scholar
  104. Pasternack BA (1985) Optimal pricing and return policies for perishable commodities. Mark Sci 4:166Google Scholar
  105. Perrachione TK, Perrachione JR (2008) Brains and brands: developing mutually informative research in neuroscience and marketing. J Consum Behav 7:303–318Google Scholar
  106. Pfurtscheller G, Lopes da Silva FH (1999) Event-related EEG/MEG synchronization and desynchronization: basic principles. Clin Neurophysiol 110:1842–1857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Pitt LF, Berthon P, Caruana A, Berthon J-P (2005) The state of theory in three premier advertising journals: a research note. Int J Advert 24:241–249Google Scholar
  108. Plassmann H, Ambler T, Braeutigam S, Kenning P (2007a) What can advertisers learn from neuroscience? Int J Advert 26:151–175Google Scholar
  109. Plassmann H, Kenning P, Ahlert D (2007b) Why companies should make their customers happy: the neural correlates of customer loyalty. Adv Consum Res 34:1–5Google Scholar
  110. Plassmann H, Kenning P, Pieper A, Schwindt W, Kugel H, Deppe M (eds) (2007c) Neural correlates of ad liking. In: Proceedings of the society for consumer psychology conference, Las VegasGoogle Scholar
  111. Plassmann H, O’Doherty J, Shiv B, Rangel A (2008) Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:1050–1054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Purves D, Brannon EM, Cabeza R, Huettel SA, LaBar KS, Platt ML, Woldorff M (2008) Principles of cognitive neuroscience. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  113. Raichle ME (1983) Positron emission tomography. Annu Rev Neurosci 6:249–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Rao VR (1984) Pricing research in marketing: the state of the art. J Bus 57:39–60Google Scholar
  115. Regan D (1989) Human brain electrophysiology: evoked potentials and evoked magnetic fields in science and medicine. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  116. Reid A (2006) MRI scanners can improve advertising effectiveness. The Economic Times, January 18. Accessed 10 June 2010
  117. Reisch L, Neuner M, Raab G (2004) Ein Jahrzehnt verhaltenswissenschaftlicher Kaufsuchtforschung in Deutschland (A decade of compulsive buying research in Germany). Verhaltenstherapie 14:120–125Google Scholar
  118. Riedl R, Banker RD, Benbasat I, Davis FD, Dennis AR, Dimoka A, Gefen D, Gupta A, Ischebeck A, Kenning P, Müller-Putz G, Pavlou PA, Straub DW, vom Brocke J, Weber B (2010a) On the foundations of neurois: Reflections on the gmunden retreat 2009. Comm Assoc Inf Syst 22(15):1–24Google Scholar
  119. Riedl R, Hubert M, Kenning P (2010b) Are there neural gender differences in online trust? An fMRI study on the perceived trustworthiness of eBay offers. MIS Q 34:397–428Google Scholar
  120. Ruff CC, Bestmann S, Blankenburg F, Bjoertomt O, Josephs O, Weiskopf N, Deichmann R, Driver J (2008) Distinct causal influences of parietal versus frontal areas on human visual cortex: evidence from concurrent TMS-fMRI. Cereb Cortex 18:817–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Samanez-Larkin GR, Gibbs SE, Khanna K, Nielsen L, Carstensen LL, Knutson B (2007) Anticipation of monetary gain but not loss in healthy older adults. Nat Neurosci 10:787–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Sanfey AG, Rilling JK, Aronson JA, Nystrom LE, Cohen JD (2003) The neural basis of economic decision-making in the ultimatum game. Science 300:1755–1758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Savoy RL (2005) Experimental design in brain activation MRI: cautionary tales. Brain Res Bull 67:361–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Selnes F (1993) An examination of the effect of product performance on brand reputation, satisfaction and loyalty. Eur J Mark 27:19–35Google Scholar
  125. Shamoo AE (2010) Ethical and regulatory challenges in psychophysiology and neuroscience-based technology for determining behavior. Account Res 17:8–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Shamoo AE, Resnik DB (2009) Responsible conduct of research, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  127. Shamoo AE, Schwartz J (2007) Universal and uniform protections of human subjects in research. Am J Bioeth 7:7–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Shiv B, Bechara A, Levin IP, Alba JW, Bettman JR, Dube L, Isen A, Mellers B, Smidts A, Grant SJ, McGraw AP (2005) Decision neuroscience. Mark Lett 16:375–386Google Scholar
  129. Shocker AD, Ben-Akiva M, Boccara B, Nedungadi P (1991) Consideration set influences on consumer decision-making and choice: issues, models, and suggestions. Mark Lett 2:181–197Google Scholar
  130. Singer T, Fehr E (2005) The neuroeconomics of mind reading and empathy. Am Econ Rev 95:340–345Google Scholar
  131. The Lancet N (2004) Neuromarketing: Beyond branding. Lancet Neurol 3(2):71–71. Accessed 26 June 2010Google Scholar
  132. Tversky A, Kahneman D (1971) Belief in the law of small numbers. Psychol Bull 76:105–110Google Scholar
  133. Vanhuele M, Drèze X (2002) Measuring the price knowledge shoppers bring to the store. J Mark 66:72–85Google Scholar
  134. Völckner F, Hofmann J (2007) The price-perceived quality relationship: a meta-analytic review and assessment of its determinants. Mark Lett 18:181–196Google Scholar
  135. Vul E, Harris C, Winkielman P, Pashler H (2009) Puzzlingly high correlations in fMRI studies of emotion, personality, and social cognition. Perspect Psychol Sci 4:274–290Google Scholar
  136. Wilson RM, Gaines J, Hill RP (2008) Neuromarketing and consumer free will. J Consum Aff 42:389–410Google Scholar
  137. Winer RS (1986) A reference price model of brand choice for frequently purchased products. J Consum Res 13:250–256Google Scholar
  138. Young C (2002) Brain waves, picture sorts®, and branding moments. J Advert Res 42:42–53Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chair for MarketingZeppelin UniversityFriedrichshafenGermany

Personalised recommendations