Odor and taste perception at normal and low atmospheric pressure in a simulated aircraft cabin
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During flights, reduced odor and taste perception is reported. Passengers tend to prefer spicier meals than on the ground. The conditions on board were simulated at the Fraunhofer flight test facility in Holzkirchen, Germany, consisting of a front fuselage of an Airbus A310-200 in a huge metal tube in which all relevant parameters can be adjusted (humidity, temperature, pressure). Flight tests were carried out at low atmospheric pressure corresponding to cabin conditions on board at cruising altitude and were repeated at normal atmospheric pressure corresponding to ground conditions. All other parameters were kept constant. Under these conditions, test persons smelled and tasted food-safe flavorants to evaluate the mean odor and taste thresholds and tasted different flavored food. Even tomato juice and various wines were tasted for odor and taste qualities, intensities and individual preferences. At low pressure conditions, higher taste and odor thresholds of flavorants were generally observed with few exceptions. Salt, sugar, glutamate and most odorant thresholds increased clearly. Organic acids and some bitter tastants showed no change. Transferred to complete meals, more salt, sugar and herbs were necessary on board to serve meals that tasted similar to the way they did on the ground. Sour ingredients had to be reduced. The odor and taste spectrum of the beverages investigated changed in various ways. Light and fresh flavors decreased, whereas intensive flavors persisted.
KeywordsOdor perception Taste perception Low atmospheric pressure Threshold of flavorants Tomato juice
We gratefully thank Lufthansa AG, represented by Dr. Ingo Bülow, Herbert Huber and Chef Sommelier Markus Del Monego, and LSG Sky Chefs In-Flight Management Solutions GmbH, represented by Bernd Hildenbrand, Ernst Derenthal, Willi Woidera and Alois Strobl, who supported us in the selection of food and beverages and prepared the dishes. Special thanks go to colleagues Gunnar Grün, Andreas Holm, Gerhard Riedl, Hans Gottschling and Martin Lebschy for technical control of the low pressure tube and Franziska Liesch, Anna Morper and Irmgard Mayer for laboratory support and flight attendance.
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