Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 35–39 | Cite as

Somatic embryogenesis in Chenopodium rubrum and Chenopodium murale in vitro

  • S. Milivojević
  • A. Mitrović
  • Lj. Ćulafić


In order to establish an efficient system for in vitro plant regeneration of a short day plant Chenopodium rubrum L. and a long day plant Chenopodium murale L., optimum culture conditions for somatic embryogenesis were investigated. The effects of different growth regulators, their combination and their concentrations on somatic embryos induction in different explant types (root, hypocotyl, cotyledon and leaf) were tested. Somatic embryogenesis was induced in both plants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with sucrose (3 %), agar (0.7 %) and 1 - 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as the sole growth regulator. The largest embryogenic capacity was found in root explants of Chenopodium rubrum on 1 μM 2,4-D and in basal parts of cotyledons in C. murale plants on 10 μM 2,4-D.

Additional key words

4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid explant types sucrose 



2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


abscisic acid




gibberellic acid


indole-3-acetic acid


indole-3-butyric acid




polyethylene glycol


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Al-Khayri, J.M.: Micropropagation of Spinacia oleracea L. (spinach).-In: Bajaj, Y.P.S. (ed.): Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 39. Pp. 173–200. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg 1997.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Matar, S.M., Al-Khayri, J.M., Brar, M.S., Klingaman, G.L.: In vitro regeneration of long spur barrenwort (Epimedium grandiflorum Morr.) from rachis explants.-In Vitro cell. dev. Biol. Plant 35: 245–248, 1999.Google Scholar
  3. Ammirato, P.V.: Embryogenesis.-In: Evans, D.A., Sharp, W.R., Ammirato, P.V., Yamada, Y. (ed.): Handbook of Plant Cell Culture. Vol. 1. Pp. 82–123. MacMillan, New York 1983.Google Scholar
  4. Ćulafić, Lj., Budimir, S., Vujičić, R., Nešković, M.: Induction of somatic embryogenesis and embryo development in Rumex acetosella L.-Plant Cell Tisue Organ Culture 11: 133–139, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. D ‘Onofrio, C., Morini, S.: Simultaneous regeneration of different morphogenic structures from quince leaves as affected by growth regulator combination and treatment length.-Biol. Plant. 47: 321–325, 2003/4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kim, S.H., Kim, S.K.: Effects of auxins and cytokinins on callus induction from leaf blade, petiole, and stem segments of in vitro-grown åSheridan« grape shoots.-J. Plant Biotechnol. 4: 17–21, 2002.Google Scholar
  7. Komai, F., Okuse, I., Harada, T.: Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in culture of root segments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).-Plant Sci. 113: 203–208, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Krekule, J., Macháčková, I., Pavlová, L., Seidlová, F.: Hormonal signals in photoperiodic control of flower initiation.-In: Krekule, J., Seidlová, F. (ed.): Signals in Plant Development. Pp. 145–162. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague 1989.Google Scholar
  9. Mandal, A.K.A., Dutta Gupta, S., Chatterji, A.K.: Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis from cotyledonary explants of safflower.-Biol. Plant. 44: 503–507, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Milivojević, S.: In vitro morphogenesis of Chenopodium rubrum L., a short-day plant and Chenopodium murale L., a long-day plant-MS Thesis. University of Belgrade, Belgrade 2003.Google Scholar
  11. Milivojević, S., Mitrović, A., Ćulafić, Lj.: Different morphogenetic patways of Chenopodium rubrum L. regeneration in vitro.-In: Redžić, S., Đug, S. (ed.): Third International Balkan Botanical Congress. P. 349. Faculty of Science of the University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo 2003.Google Scholar
  12. Mitrović, A., Živanović, B., Ćulafić, Lj.: The effects of photoperiod, glucose and gibberellic acid on growth in vitro and flowering of Chenopodium murale.-Biol. Plant. 43: 173–177, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mitrović, A., Živanović, B., Ćulafić, Lj.: Effect of darkness on growth and flowering of Chenopodium rubrum and C. murale plants in vitro.-Biol. Plant. 46: 471–474, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Murashige T., Skoog F.: A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures.-Physiol. Plant. 15: 473–497, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nešković, M., Vujičić, R., Budimir, S.: Somatic embryogenesis and bud formation from immature embryos of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.).-Plant Cell Rep. 6: 423–426, 1987.Google Scholar
  16. Pavlová, L., Krekule, J.: Fluctuation of free IAA under inductive and non-inductive photoperiods in Chenopodium rubrum.-J. Plant Growth Regul. 2: 94–98, 1984.Google Scholar
  17. Raimondi, J.P., Camadro, E.L., Babinec, F.J.: Somatic embryogenesis in Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Argenteuil: interactions between genotype, explant type and growth regulators on callus induction, growth and embryogenic differentiation.-Biocell 25: 147–154, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Sasaki, H., Arato, T., Takahashi, K., Kobori, T.: Regeneration of spinach plant from hypocotyl tissue cultured in vitro.-J. Hokkaido Univ. Educ. 45: 31–35, 1994.Google Scholar
  19. Tétu, T., Sangwan, R.S., Sangwan-Norreel, B.S.: Hormonal control of organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in Beta vulgaris callus.-J. exp. Bot. 38: 506–517, 1987.Google Scholar
  20. Xiao, X.G., Branchard, M.: Embryogenesis and plant regeneration of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) from hypocotyls segments.-Plant Cell Rep. 13: 69–71, 1993.Google Scholar
  21. Zdravković-Korać, S., Nešković, M.: Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in Spinacia oleracea tissue culture.-Arch. Biol. Sci. Belgrade 50: 183–188, 1998.Google Scholar
  22. Zdravković-Korać, S., Nešković, M.: Induction and development of somatic embryos from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf segments.-Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 55: 109–114, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Živanović, B., Ćulafić, Lj., Filipović, A.: The effects of hormones and saccharides on growth and flowering of green and herbicides-treated Chenopodium rubrum L. plants.-Biol. Plant. 37: 257–264, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Experimental Botany 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Biological Research “S. Stanković”BelgradeSerbia and Montenegro
  2. 2.Center for Multidisciplinary StudiesUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia and Montenegro
  3. 3.Institute of Botany, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia and Montenegro

Personalised recommendations