GPS Solutions

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 29–41 | Cite as

GPS Solutions: Closed Forms, Critical and Special Configurations of P4P

  • Erik W. Grafarend
  • Jeffrey Shan

P4P is the pseudo-ranging 4-point problem as it appears as the basic configuration of satellite positioning with pseudo-ranges as observables. In order to determine the ground receiver/satellite receiver (LEO networks) position from four positions of satellite transmitters given, a system of four nonlinear (algebraic) equations has to be solved. The solution point is the intersection of four spherical cones if the ground receiver/satellite receiver clock bias is implemented as an unknown. Here we determine the critical configuration manifold (Determinantal Loci, Inverse Function Theorem, Jacobi map) where no solution of P4P exists. Four examples demonstrate the critical linear manifold. The algorithm GS solves in a closed form P4P in a manner similar to Groebner bases: The algebraic nonlinear observational equations are reduced in the forward step to one quadratic equation in the clock bias unknown. In the backward step two solutions of the position unknowns are generated in closed form. Prior information in P4P has to be implemented in order to decide which solution is acceptable. Finally, the main target of our contribution is formulated: Can we identify a special configuration of satellite transmitters and ground receiver/satellite receiver where the two solutions are reduced to one. A special geometric analysis of the discriminant solves this problem. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Manifold Closed Form Special Configuration Linear Manifold Receiver Clock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik W. Grafarend
    • 1
  • Jeffrey Shan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Stuttgart University, Geschwister-Scholl-Str. 24D, D-70174 Stuttgart, GermanyDE
  2. 2.Geomatics Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907US

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