Synchronization of gallers with host plant phenology
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In addition to various bottom-up effects, the synchronization of herbivores with their host plant phenology determines quality and quantity of food resources and affects the preference–performance linkage and abundance of herbivores. The synchronization has a more critical meaning for such short-lived galling insects as cecidomyiid adults and young aphid stem mothers than for other insects. This review, first, presents general information about gall midges and gall aphids, together with their life history patterns and some ecological attributes. Second, some important topics of galling insect–host plant relation are briefly reviewed. Then, synchronization patterns between gall midge emergence and host plant phenology are analyzed to discuss the adaptive strategies of gall midges and to show how the amount of available food resources is affected by the time lag in synchronization. The spatial distribution pattern and the preference–performance linkage of aphid stem mothers is also discussed in relation to synchronization.
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