Journal of Neurology

, Volume 248, Supplement 1, pp I21–I24

Botulinum toxin: evidence-based medicine criteria in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm

  • Wolfgang H. Jost
  • André Kohl

DOI: 10.1007/PL00007813

Cite this article as:
Jost, W. & Kohl, A. J Neurol (2001) 248(Suppl 1): I21. doi:10.1007/PL00007813


Botulinum A toxin is recognized and approved for symptomatic treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm. The state of trials is good, although double-blind placebo-controlled studies have been carried out involving only a small number of cases. Open case control studies have been done with large patient collectives. In both indications, treatment with botulinum toxin reaches the highest EBM degree in a critical evaluation.

Key words Botulinum toxin Hemifacial spasm Blepharospasm Evidence-based medicine 

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang H. Jost
    • 1
  • André Kohl
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, and Clinical Neurophysiology, Deutsche Klinik für Diagnostik, Aukammallee 33, 65191 Wiesbaden, Germany, Tel.: ++49-611-577321, Fax: ++49-611-577311, e-mail: jost@botulinumtoxin.deDE

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