Rates of Nucleotide Substitution in Angiosperm Mitochondrial DNA Sequences and Dates of Divergence Between Brassica and Other Angiosperm Lineages
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We obtained 16 nucleotide sequences (∼1400 bp each) of the first intron of the mitochondrial (mt) gene for NADH subunit 4 (nad4) from 10 species of Brassicaceae. Using these new sequences and five published sequences from GenBank, we constructed a phylogenetic tree of the Brassicaceae species under study and showed that the rate of nucleotide substitution in the first intron of nad4 is very low, about 0.16–0.23 × 10−9 substitution per site per year, which is about half of the silent rate in exons of nad4. The ratios of substitution rates in this intron, ITS, and IGS are approximately 1:23:73, where ITS is the nuclear intergenic spacer between 18S and 25S rRNA genes and IGS is the intergenic spacer of 5S rRNA genes. A segment (335 bp) in the first intron of nad4 in Brassicaceae species that is absent in wheat was considered as a nonfunctional sequence and used to estimate the neutral rate (the rate of mutation) in mtDNA to be 0.5–0.7 × 10−9 substitution per site per year, which is about three times higher than the substitution rate in the rest of the first intron of nad4. We estimated that the dates of divergence are 170–235 million years (Myr) for the monocot–dicot split, 112–156 Myr for the Brassicaceae–Lettuce split, 14.5–20.4 Myr for the Brassica–Arabidopsis split, and 14.5–20.4 Myr for the Arabidopsis–Arabideae split.
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