Journal of Molecular Evolution

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 285–294 | Cite as

Phylogeny and Rates of Molecular Evolution of Planktonic Foraminifera: SSU rDNA Sequences Compared to the Fossil Record

  • Colomban  de Vargas
  • Louisette  Zaninetti
  • Heinz  Hilbrecht
  • Jan  Pawlowski

Abstract.

Planktonic foraminifera are marine protists, whose calcareous shells form oceanic sediments and are widely used for stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental analyses. The fossil record of planktonic foraminifera is compared here to their molecular phylogeny inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences. Eighteen partial SSU rDNA sequences from species representing all modern planktonic families (Globigerinidae, Hastigerinidae, Globorotaliidae, Candeinidae) were obtained and compared to seven sequences representing the major groups of benthic foraminifera. The phylogenetic analyses indicate a polyphyletic origin for the planktonic foraminifera. The Candeinidae, the Globorotaliidae, and the clade Globigerinidae + Hastigerinidae seem to have originated independently, at different epochs in the evolution of foraminifera. Inference of their relationships, however, is limited by substitution rates of heterogeneity. Rates of SSU rDNA evolution vary from 4.0 × 10−9 substitutions/site/year in the Globigerinidae to less than 1.0 × 10−9 substitutions/site/year in the Globorotaliidae. These variations may be related to different levels of adaptation to the planktonic mode of life. A clock-like evolution is observed among the Globigerinidae, for which molecular and paleontological data are congruent. Phylogeny of the Globorotaliidae is clearly biased by rapid rates of substitution in two species (G. truncatulinoides and G. menardii). Our study reveals differences in absolute rates of evolution at all taxonomic levels in planktonic foraminifera and demonstrates their effect on phylogenetic reconstructions.

Key words: Planktonic foraminifera — Molecular phylogenetics — Rates of substitution — Ribosomal DNA 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colomban  de Vargas
    • 1
  • Louisette  Zaninetti
    • 1
  • Heinz  Hilbrecht
    • 2
  • Jan  Pawlowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Département de Zoologie et Biologie Animale, Université de Genève, CH-1224 Chêne-Bougeries, SwitzerlandCH
  2. 2.Geological Institute, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Sonneggstrasse 5, CH-8092 Zürich, SwitzerlandCH

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