KAM theorem for generic analytic perturbations of the Euler system
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We apply here KAM theory to the fast rotations of a rigid body with a fixed point, subject to a purely positional potential. The problem is equivalent to a small perturbation of the Euler system. The difficulty is that the unperturbed system is properly degenerate, namely the unperturbed Hamiltonian depends only on two actions. Following the scheme used by Arnol'd for the N-body problem, we use part of the perturbation to remove the degeneracy: precisely, we construct Birkhoff normal form up to a suitable finite order, thus eliminating the two fast angles; the resulting system is nearly integrable and (generically) no more degenerate, so KAM theorem applies. The resulting description of the motion is that, if the initial kinetic energy is sufficiently large, then for most initial data the angular momentum has nearly constant module, and moves slowly in the space, practically following the level curves of the initial potential averaged on the two fast angles; on the same time the body precesses around the instantaneous direction of the angular momentum, essentially as in the Euler-Poinsot motion. We also provide two simple physical examples, where the procedure does apply.
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