Positive darwinian selection on two homologous fertilization proteins: what is the selective pressure driving their divergence?
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Most examples of positive selection inferred from nucleotide sequence data involve host-pathogen interactions. However, positive selection also promotes the divergence of proteins mediating spermegg recognition in marine invertebrates. The abalone spermatozoon has a large acrosomal vesicle containing two proteins of 16 kDa and 18 kDa. Lysin, the 16-kDa protein, exhibits species-specificity in dissolving a hole in the egg vitelline envelope through which the sperm swims to reach the egg plasma membrane. The 18-kDa protein coats the sperm acrosomal process and probably mediates fusion of the two gametes. In this review, we compare sequences of both proteins from five species of California abalones. Both proteins show extensive divergence which has been promoted by positive Darwinian selection. The ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions may be the highest yet discovered for full-length sequences. Although extensive divergence has occurred, there is conservation of the shape and polarity of residues in both proteins. The two acrosomal proteins arose by a gene duplication followed by their extensive divergence. Five hypotheses are presented which attempt to explain the nature of the unknown selective force responsible for the robust positive selection. The positive selection may, in some unknown way, be related to the establishment of prezygotic barriers to reproduction. Because positive selection promotes the divergence of unrelated, species-specific gamete recognition proteins in both abalones and sea urchins, we predict that positive selection may be a general phenomenon in the evolution of gamete recognition systems in marine invertebrates.
Key wordsSelective pressure Darwinian selection Homologous fertilization proteins
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