Skip to main content

Centrality dependence of high-pT D meson suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at \( \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{N}\;\mathrm{N}}}=2.76 \) TeV

A preprint version of the article is available at arXiv.


The nuclear modification factor, R AA, of the prompt charmed mesons D0, D+ and D∗+, and their antiparticles, was measured with the ALICE detector in Pb-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy \( \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{N}\;\mathrm{N}}}=2.76 \) TeV in two transverse momentum intervals, 5 < p T < 8 GeV/c and 8 < p T < 16 GeV/c, and in six collision centrality classes. The R AA shows a maximum suppression of a factor of 5-6 in the 10% most central collisions. The suppression and its centrality dependence are compatible within uncertainties with those of charged pions. A comparison with the R AA of non-prompt J from B meson decays, measured by the CMS Collaboration, hints at a larger suppression of D mesons in the most central collisions.


  1. [1]

    F. Karsch, Lattice simulations of the thermodynamics of strongly interacting elementary particles and the exploration of new phases of matter in relativistic heavy ion collisions, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 46 (2006) 122 [hep-lat/0608003] [INSPIRE].

  2. [2]

    Wuppertal-Budapest collaboration, S. Borsányi et al., Is there still any T c mystery in lattice QCD? Results with physical masses in the continuum limit III, JHEP 09 (2010) 073 [arXiv:1005.3508] [INSPIRE].

  3. [3]

    S. Borsányi, Z. Fodor, C. Hölbling, S.D. Katz, S. Krieg and K.K. Szabo, Full result for the QCD equation of state with 2+1 flavors, Phys. Lett. B 730 (2014) 99 [arXiv:1309.5258] [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  4. [4]

    A. Bazavov et al., The chiral and deconfinement aspects of the QCD transition, Phys. Rev. D 85 (2012) 054503 [arXiv:1111.1710] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  5. [5]

    M. Gyulassy and M. Plumer, Jet Quenching in Dense Matter, Phys. Lett. B 243 (1990) 432 [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  6. [6]

    R. Baier, Y.L. Dokshitzer, A.H. Mueller, S. Peigne and D. Schiff, Radiative energy loss and p T broadening of high-energy partons in nuclei, Nucl. Phys. B 484 (1997) 265 [hep-ph/9608322] [INSPIRE].

  7. [7]

    M.H. Thoma and M. Gyulassy, Quark Damping and Energy Loss in the High Temperature QCD, Nucl. Phys. B 351 (1991) 491 [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  8. [8]

    E. Braaten and M.H. Thoma, Energy loss of a heavy quark in the quark-gluon plasma, Phys. Rev. D 44 (1991) 2625 [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  9. [9]

    E. Braaten and M.H. Thoma, Energy loss of a heavy fermion in a hot plasma, Phys. Rev. D 44 (1991) 1298 [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  10. [10]

    W.E. Brittin et al. (ed.), R.J. Glauber in Lectures in Theoretical Physics, Interscience Publishers, NY, Vol. 1 (1959).

  11. [11]

    M.L. Miller, K. Reygers, S.J. Sanders and P. Steinberg, Glauber modeling in high energy nuclear collisions, Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 57 (2007) 205 [nucl-ex/0701025] [INSPIRE].

  12. [12]

    M. Djordjevic, Heavy flavor puzzle at LHC: a serendipitous interplay of jet suppression and fragmentation, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 (2014) 042302 [arXiv:1307.4702] [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  13. [13]

    Particle Data Group collaboration, J. Beringer et al., Review of Particle Physics (RPP), Phys. Rev. D 86 (2012) 010001 [INSPIRE].

  14. [14]

    F.-M. Liu and S.-X. Liu, quark-gluon plasma formation time and direct photons from heavy ion collisions, Phys. Rev. C 89 (2014) 034906 [arXiv:1212.6587] [INSPIRE].

  15. [15]

    A. Andronic et al., Heavy-flavour and quarkonium production in the LHC era: from proton-proton to heavy-ion collisions, arXiv:1506.03981 [INSPIRE].

  16. [16]

    ALICE collaboration, Centrality Dependence of Charged Particle Production at Large Transverse Momentum in Pb-Pb Collisions at \( \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{N}\;\mathrm{N}}}=2.76 \) TeV, Phys. Lett. B 720 (2013) 52 [arXiv:1208.2711] [INSPIRE].

  17. [17]

    N. Armesto, A. Dainese, C.A. Salgado and U.A. Wiedemann, Testing the color charge and mass dependence of parton energy loss with heavy-to-light ratios at RHIC and CERN LHC, Phys. Rev. D 71 (2005) 054027 [hep-ph/0501225] [INSPIRE].

  18. [18]

    S. Wicks, W. Horowitz, M. Djordjevic and M. Gyulassy, Elastic, inelastic and path length fluctuations in jet tomography, Nucl. Phys. A 784 (2007) 426 [nucl-th/0512076] [INSPIRE].

  19. [19]

    W.A. Horowitz and M. Gyulassy, The Surprising Transparency of the sQGP at LHC, Nucl. Phys. A 872 (2011) 265 [arXiv:1104.4958] [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  20. [20]

    W.A. Horowitz, Testing pQCD and AdS/CFT Energy Loss at RHIC and LHC, AIP Conf. Proc. 1441 (2012) 889 [arXiv:1108.5876] [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  21. [21]

    Y.L. Dokshitzer and D.E. Kharzeev, Heavy quark colorimetry of QCD matter, Phys. Lett. B 519 (2001) 199 [hep-ph/0106202] [INSPIRE].

  22. [22]

    N. Armesto, C.A. Salgado and U.A. Wiedemann, Medium induced gluon radiation off massive quarks fills the dead cone, Phys. Rev. D 69 (2004) 114003 [hep-ph/0312106] [INSPIRE].

  23. [23]

    M. Djordjevic and M. Gyulassy, Heavy quark radiative energy loss in QCD matter, Nucl. Phys. A 733 (2004) 265 [nucl-th/0310076] [INSPIRE].

  24. [24]

    B.-W. Zhang, E. Wang and X.-N. Wang, Heavy quark energy loss in nuclear medium, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 072301 [nucl-th/0309040] [INSPIRE].

  25. [25]

    H. van Hees, V. Greco and R. Rapp, Heavy-quark probes of the quark-gluon plasma at RHIC, Phys. Rev. C 73 (2006) 034913 [nucl-th/0508055] [INSPIRE].

  26. [26]

    A. Adil and I. Vitev, Collisional dissociation of heavy mesons in dense QCD matter, Phys. Lett. B 649 (2007) 139 [hep-ph/0611109] [INSPIRE].

  27. [27]

    R. Sharma, I. Vitev and B.-W. Zhang, Light-cone wave function approach to open heavy flavor dynamics in QCD matter, Phys. Rev. C 80 (2009) 054902 [arXiv:0904.0032] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  28. [28]

    A. Buzzatti and M. Gyulassy, A running coupling explanation of the surprising transparency of the QGP at LHC, Nucl. Phys. A904-905 (2013) 779c-782c [arXiv:1210.6417] [INSPIRE].

  29. [29]

    M. He, R.J. Fries and R. Rapp, Non-perturbative Heavy-Flavor Transport at RHIC and LHC, Nucl. Phys. A910-911 (2013) 409 [arXiv:1208.0256] [INSPIRE].

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. [30]

    M. He, R.J. Fries and R. Rapp, Heavy Flavor at the Large Hadron Collider in a Strong Coupling Approach, Phys. Lett. B 735 (2014) 445 [arXiv:1401.3817] [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  31. [31]

    P.B. Gossiaux, M. Nahrgang, M. Bluhm, T. Gousset and J. Aichelin, Heavy quark quenching from RHIC to LHC and the consequences of gluon damping, Nucl. Phys. A904-905 (2013) 992c [arXiv:1211.2281] [INSPIRE].

  32. [32]

    J. Uphoff, O. Fochler, Z. Xu and C. Greiner, Open Heavy Flavor in Pb+Pb Collisions at \( \sqrt{s}=2.76 \) TeV within a Transport Model, Phys. Lett. B 717 (2012) 430 [arXiv:1205.4945] [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  33. [33]

    W.M. Alberico et al., Heavy flavors in AA collisions: production, transport and final spectra, Eur. Phys. J. C 73 (2013) 2481 [arXiv:1305.7421] [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  34. [34]

    S. Cao, G.-Y. Qin and S.A. Bass, Heavy-quark dynamics and hadronization in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions: Collisional versus radiative energy loss, Phys. Rev. C 88 (2013) 044907 [arXiv:1308.0617] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  35. [35]

    T. Lang, H. van Hees, J. Steinheimer and M. Bleicher, Heavy quark transport in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC within the UrQMD transport model, arXiv:1211.6912 [INSPIRE].

  36. [36]

    N. Armesto et al., Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions, J. Phys. G 35 (2008) 054001 [arXiv:0711.0974] [INSPIRE].

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. [37]

    ALICE collaboration, Suppression of high transverse momentum D mesons in central Pb-Pb collisions at \( \sqrt{s_{N\;N}}=2.76 \) TeV, JHEP 09 (2012) 112 [arXiv:1203.2160] [INSPIRE].

  38. [38]

    CMS collaboration, Suppression of non-prompt J/ψ, prompt J/ψ and Y(1S) in PbPb collisions at \( \sqrt{s_{N\;N}}=2.76 \) TeV, JHEP 05 (2012) 063 [arXiv:1201.5069] [INSPIRE].

  39. [39]

    ALICE collaboration, The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC, 2008 JINST 3 S08002 [INSPIRE].

  40. [40]

    ALICE collaboration, Production of charged pions, kaons and protons at large transverse momenta in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at \( \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{N}\;\mathrm{N}}} \) =2.76 TeV, Phys. Lett. B 736 (2014) 196 [arXiv:1401.1250] [INSPIRE].

  41. [41]

    ALICE collaboration, Performance of the ALICE VZERO system, 2013 JINST 8 P10016 [arXiv:1306.3130] [INSPIRE].

  42. [42]

    ALICE collaboration, Centrality determination of Pb-Pb collisions at \( \sqrt{s_{N\;N}} \) = 2.76 TeV with ALICE, Phys. Rev. C 88 (2013) 044909 [arXiv:1301.4361] [INSPIRE].

  43. [43]

    J. Alme et al., The ALICE TPC, a large 3-dimensional tracking device with fast readout for ultra-high multiplicity events, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 622 (2010) 316 [arXiv:1001.1950] [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  44. [44]

    ALICE collaboration, Alignment of the ALICE Inner Tracking System with cosmic-ray tracks, 2010 JINST 5 P03003 [arXiv:1001.0502] [INSPIRE].

  45. [45]

    ALICE collaboration, Azimuthal anisotropy of D meson production in Pb-Pb collisions at \( \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{N}\;\mathrm{N}}}=2.76 \) TeV, Phys. Rev. C 90 (2014) 034904 [arXiv:1405.2001] [INSPIRE].

  46. [46]

    X.-N. Wang and M. Gyulassy, HIJING: A Monte Carlo model for multiple jet production in p-p, p-A and A-A collisions, Phys. Rev. D 44 (1991) 3501 [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  47. [47]

    T. Sjöstrand, S. Mrenna and P.Z. Skands, PYTHIA 6.4 Physics and Manual, JHEP 05 (2006) 026 [hep-ph/0603175] [INSPIRE].

  48. [48]

    R. Brun, F. Carminati and S. Giani, GEANT Detector Description and Simulation Tool, CERN-W5013, CERN-W-5013 (1994).

  49. [49]

    M. Cacciari, S. Frixione, N. Houdeau, M.L. Mangano, P. Nason and G. Ridolfi, Theoretical predictions for charm and bottom production at the LHC, JHEP 10 (2012) 137 [arXiv:1205.6344] [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  50. [50]

    D.J. Lange, The EvtGen particle decay simulation package, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 462 (2001) 152 [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  51. [51]

    ALICE collaboration, Measurement of charm production at central rapidity in proton-proton collisions at \( \sqrt{s}=7 \) TeV, JHEP 01 (2012) 128 [arXiv:1111.1553] [INSPIRE].

  52. [52]

    R. Averbeck, N. Bastid, Z.C. del Valle, P. Crochet, A. Dainese and X. Zhang, Reference Heavy Flavour Cross sections in pp Collisions at \( \sqrt{s}=2.76 \) TeV, using a pQCD-Driven \( \sqrt{s} \)Scaling of ALICE Measurements at \( \sqrt{s}=7 \) TeV, arXiv:1107.3243 [INSPIRE].

  53. [53]

    ALICE collaboration, Measurement of charm production at central rapidity in proton-proton collisions at \( \sqrt{s}=2.76 \) TeV, JHEP 07 (2012) 191 [arXiv:1205.4007] [INSPIRE].

  54. [54]

    J. Uphoff, O. Fochler, Z. Xu and C. Greiner, Elliptic Flow and Energy Loss of Heavy Quarks in Ultra-Relativistic heavy Ion Collisions, Phys. Rev. C 84 (2011) 024908 [arXiv:1104.2295] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  55. [55]

    O. Fochler, J. Uphoff, Z. Xu and C. Greiner, Jet quenching and elliptic flow at RHIC and LHC within a pQCD-based partonic transport model, J. Phys. G 38 (2011) 124152 [arXiv:1107.0130] [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  56. [56]

    CMS Collaboration, J/psi results from CMS in PbPb collisions, with 150 μb −1 data, CMS-PAS-HIN-12-014.

  57. [57]

    M. Djordjevic, M. Djordjevic and B. Blagojevic, RHIC and LHC jet suppression in non-central collisions, Phys. Lett. B 737 (2014) 298 [arXiv:1405.4250] [INSPIRE].

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  58. [58]

    M. Nahrgang, J. Aichelin, P.B. Gossiaux and K. Werner, Influence of hadronic bound states above T c on heavy-quark observables in Pb + Pb collisions at at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, Phys. Rev. C 89 (2014) 014905 [arXiv:1305.6544] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  59. [59]

    K. Werner, I. Karpenko, T. Pierog, M. Bleicher and K. Mikhailov, Event-by-Event Simulation of the Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Evolution from Flux Tube Initial Conditions in Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ion Collisions, Phys. Rev. C 82 (2010) 044904 [arXiv:1004.0805] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  60. [60]

    K. Werner, I. Karpenko, M. Bleicher, T. Pierog and S. Porteboeuf-Houssais, Jets, Bulk Matter and their Interaction in Heavy Ion Collisions at Several TeV, Phys. Rev. C 85 (2012) 064907 [arXiv:1203.5704] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  61. [61]

    S. Cao, G.-Y. Qin and S.A. Bass, Energy loss, hadronization and hadronic interactions of heavy flavors in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, Phys. Rev. C 92 (2015) 024907 [arXiv:1505.01413] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Author information