A flipped 331 model

  • Renato M. Fonseca
  • Martin Hirsch
Open Access
Regular Article - Theoretical Physics


Models based on the extended SU(3) C × SU(3) L × U(1) X (331) gauge group usually follow a common pattern: two families of left-handed quarks are placed in anti-triplet representations of the SU(3) L group; the remaining quark family, as well as the left-handed leptons, are assigned to triplets (or vice-versa). In this work we present a flipped 331 model where this scheme is reversed: all three quark families are in the same representation and it is the lepton families which are discriminated by the gauge symmetry We discuss fermion masses and mixing, as well as Z interactions, in a minimal model implementing this idea.


Beyond Standard Model Gauge Symmetry Neutrino Physics 


Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.


  1. [1]
    J. Schechter and Y. Ueda, Unified weak-electromagnetic gauge schemes based on the three-dimensional unitary group, Phys. Rev. D 8 (1973) 484 [INSPIRE].ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    V. Gupta and H.S. Mani, Unified weak and electromagnetic gauge theory based on SU(3) × U(1), Phys. Rev. D 10 (1974) 1310 [INSPIRE].ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    C.H. Albright, C. Jarlskog and M.O. Tjia, Implications of Gauge Theories for Heavy Leptons, Nucl. Phys. B 86 (1975) 535 [INSPIRE].ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    H. Georgi and A. Pais, Generalization of Gim: Horizontal and Vertical Flavor Mixing, Phys. Rev. D 19 (1979) 2746 [INSPIRE].ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    M. Singer, J.W.F. Valle and J. Schechter, Canonical Neutral Current Predictions From the Weak Electromagnetic Gauge Group SU(3) × U(1), Phys. Rev. D 22 (1980) 738 [INSPIRE].ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    F. Pisano and V. Pleitez, An SU(3) × U(1) model for electroweak interactions, Phys. Rev. D 46 (1992)410 [hep-ph/9206242] [INSPIRE].
  7. [7]
    P.H. Frampton, Chiral dilepton model and the flavor question, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69 (1992) 2889 [INSPIRE].ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    R.A. Diaz, R. Martinez and F. Ochoa, SU(3)c × SU(3)L × U(1)X models for beta arbitrary and families with mirror fermions, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 035018 [hep-ph/0411263] [INSPIRE].
  9. [9]
    A.J. Buras, F. De Fazio and J. Girrbach-Noe, Z-Z mixing and Z-mediated FCNCs in SU(3)C × SU(3)L × U(1)X models, JHEP 08 (2014) 039 [arXiv:1405.3850] [INSPIRE].ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    R. Foot, O.F. Hernandez, F. Pisano and V. Pleitez, Lepton masses in an SU(3)L × U(1)N gauge model, Phys. Rev. D 47 (1993) 4158 [hep-ph/9207264] [INSPIRE].
  11. [11]
    R.M. Fonseca and M. Hirsch, Lepton number violation in 331 models, arXiv:1607.06328 [INSPIRE].
  12. [12]
    L.A. Sanchez, W.A. Ponce and R. Martinez, SU(3)c × SU(3)L × U(1)X as an E 6 subgroup, Phys. Rev. D 64 (2001) 075013 [hep-ph/0103244] [INSPIRE].
  13. [13]
    R.M. Fonseca, On the chirality of the SM and the fermion content of GUTs, Nucl. Phys. B 897 (2015)757 [arXiv:1504.03695] [INSPIRE].
  14. [14]
    D.V. Forero, M. Tortola and J.W.F. Valle, Neutrino oscillations refitted, Phys. Rev. D 90 (2014)093006 [arXiv:1405.7540] [INSPIRE].
  15. [15]
    A.J. Buras and F. De Fazio, ε /ε in 331 Models, JHEP 03 (2016) 010 [arXiv:1512.02869] [INSPIRE].
  16. [16]
    S.M. Boucenna, J.W.F. Valle and A. Vicente, Predicting charged lepton flavor violation from 3-3-1 gauge symmetry, Phys. Rev. D 92 (2015) 053001 [arXiv:1502.07546] [INSPIRE].ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Y. Kuno and Y. Okada, Muon decay and physics beyond the standard model, Rev. Mod. Phys. 73 (2001) 151 [hep-ph/9909265] [INSPIRE].
  18. [18]
    SINDRUM collaboration, U. Bellgardt et al., Search for the Decay μ+ → e + e + e , Nucl. Phys. B 299 (1988) 1 [INSPIRE].
  19. [19]
    ATLAS collaboration, Search for new phenomena in the dilepton final state using proton-proton collisions at \( \sqrt{s}=13 \) TeV with the ATLAS detector, ATLAS-CONF-2015-070 (2015).
  20. [20]
    CMS collaboration, Search for a Narrow Resonance Produced in 13 TeV pp Collisions Decaying to Electron Pair or Muon Pair Final States, CMS-PAS-EXO-15-005 (2015).
  21. [21]
    A. Blondel et al., Research Proposal for an Experiment to Search for the Decay μeee, arXiv:1301.6113 [INSPIRE].

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AHEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, C.S.I.C./Universitat de ValènciaPaternaSpain

Personalised recommendations