Line operators in the Standard Model

  • David Tong
Open Access
Regular Article - Theoretical Physics


There is an ambiguity in the gauge group of the Standard Model. The group is G = SU(3) × SU(2) × U(1)/Γ, where Γ is a subgroup of Z 6 which cannot be determined by current experiments. We describe how the electric, magnetic and dyonic line operators of the theory depend on the choice of Γ. We also explain how the periodicity of the theta angles, associated to each factor of G, differ.


Discrete Symmetries Gauge Symmetry Wilson, ’t Hooft and Polyakov loops 


Open Access

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical PhysicsUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeU.K.

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