Black holes as bubble nucleation sites
- 370 Downloads
We consider the effect of inhomogeneities on the rate of false vacuum decay. Modelling the inhomogeneity by a black hole, we construct explicit Euclidean instantons which describe the nucleation of a bubble of true vacuum centred on the inhomogeneity. We find that inhomogeneity significantly enhances the nucleation rate over that of the Coleman-de Luccia instanton — the black hole acts as a nucleation site for the bubble. The effect is larger than previously believed due to the contributions to the action from conical singularities. For a sufficiently low initial mass, the original black hole is replaced by flat space during this process, as viewed by a single causal patch observer. Increasing the initial mass, we find a critical value above which a black hole remnant survives the process. This resulting black hole can have a higher mass than the original black hole, but always has a lower entropy. We compare the process to bubble-to-bubble transitions, where there is a semi-classical Lorentzian description in the WKB approximation.
KeywordsCosmology of Theories beyond the SM Black Holes Solitons Monopoles and Instantons
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
- S.R. Coleman, The Fate of the False Vacuum. 1. Semiclassical Theory, Phys. Rev. D 15 (1977) 2929 [Erratum ibid. D 16 (1977) 1248] [INSPIRE].
- W. Israel, Singular hypersurfaces and thin shells in general relativity, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Phys. B 44 (1966) 4349.Google Scholar