Journal of High Energy Physics

, 2019:58 | Cite as

How to build the thermofield double state

  • William Cottrell
  • Ben Freivogel
  • Diego M. Hofman
  • Sagar F. LokhandeEmail author
Open Access
Regular Article - Theoretical Physics


Given two copies of any quantum mechanical system, one may want to prepare them in the thermofield double state for the purpose of studying thermal physics or black holes. However, the thermofield double is a unique entangled pure state and may be difficult to prepare. We propose a local interacting Hamiltonian for the combined system whose ground state is approximately the thermofield double. The energy gap for this Hamiltonian is of order the temperature. Our construction works for any quantum system satisfying the Eigenvalue Thermalization Hypothesis.


AdS-CFT Correspondence Black Holes Effective Field Theories Conformal Field Theory 


Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Cottrell
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ben Freivogel
    • 2
    • 3
  • Diego M. Hofman
    • 2
  • Sagar F. Lokhande
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Physics DepartmentStanford UniversityStanfordU.S.A.
  2. 2.Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.GRAPPA, University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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