Comments on Lorentz transformations, dressed asymptotic states and Hawking radiation

  • Reza Javadinezhad
  • Uri KolEmail author
  • Massimo Porrati
Open Access
Regular Article - Theoretical Physics


We consider two applications of the factorization of infrared dynamics in QED and gravity. The first is a redefinition of the Lorentz transformations that makes them commute with supertranslations. The other is the process of particle creation near a black hole horizon. For the latter we show that the emission of soft particles factors out of the S-matrix in the fixed-background approximation and to leading order in the soft limit. The factorization is implemented by dressing the incoming and outgoing asymptotic states with clouds of soft photons and soft gravitons. We find that while the soft photon cloud has no effect, the soft graviton cloud induces a phase shift in the Bogolyubov coefficients relating the incoming and outgoing modes. However, the flux of outgoing particles, given by the absolute value of the Bogolyubov coefficient, is insensitive to this phase.


Black Holes Scattering Amplitudes Space-Time Symmetries Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking 


Open Access

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of PhysicsNew York UniversityNew YorkU.S.A.
  2. 2.Yukawa Institute for Theoretical PhysicsKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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