Advertisement

Tourism Inter-Organizational Relationships, Coordination and Hierarchy in the Black Sea Riparian Cities

  • Gabriela StanciulescuEmail author
  • Olimpia State
Article

Abstract

Present-day international tourism would be quite impossible without international cooperation. The contribution of international organizations throughout the latter half of the twentieth century is beyond the scope of this paper. The best reference sources on this vast subject are the series of Annual Reports of the OECD Tourism Committee, the publications of the World Tourism Organization and, in the purely European context, the published output of DG XXIII of the European Commission. Analyzing the Black Sea area and its 11 riparian countries (Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine) the main sources are the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, the Forum of the cities and regions of South East Europe, the national statistics of the respective countries as scarce they are.

In the Black Sea area as everywhere else, governments intervene and encourage tourism through a complex structure of governmental and officially recognized organizations, which are convenient to visualize as existing at different levels within a pyramid, the national executive at the apex and the local level at the base. The structure should not be taken literally as corresponding to the distribution of real power and influence as the base may have considerable resources and powers to act independently and to strongly influence ‘upwards’ the development of policy. The whole structure is, certainly, subject to continual pressure from electorates, business interests and lobbies.

The basic aim of the paper is to promote the establishment of partnerships between South-Eastern European local and regional authorities and other cities and regions around the Black Sea, as a means of consolidating local and regional tourism infrastructure and products.

Key words

The Black Sea riparian cities tourism 

JELClassification

10 11 14 

Related field(s)

Resource and Environmental Policy International Economic Policy Climate Change and Institutional Tourism Partnership 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Davidson, R. 1992. Tourism in Europe. Paris: Pitman Techniplus.Google Scholar
  2. Dwyer, L. 2003. “Destination Competitiveness: Determinants and Indicators”. Tourism, 5(5). Available on-line at: https://doi.org/web.ebscohost.com/
  3. Ekinci, Y. 2006. “Destination Personality: An Application of Brand Personality to Tourism Destination”, Journal of Travel Research, 45(2): 127–139. Available on-line at: http://web.ebscohost.com/CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kantanen, T. 2005. “Advertising in low and high involvement cultural tourism attractions: Four cases”. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 6(2). Available on-line at: https://doi.org/web.ebscohost.com/
  5. Laulajainen, R. 2001. “The Unfamiliar Tourist Destination- A Marketing Challange”. European Journal of Marketing, 15(7). Available on-line at: https://doi.org/web.ebscohost.com/
  6. Lindberg, F. 2004. “A dialogic endeavor into the mediating forces of cultural tourism”. Scandinavian Journal of Tourism, 4(3). Available on-line at: https://doi.org/web.ebscohost.com/
  7. Middleton V. 2001. Marketing in travel and Tourism. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Butterworth-HeinemannGoogle Scholar
  8. Minghetti, V. 2001. “From Destination to Destination Marketing and Management: Designing and Repositioning Tourism Products”. International Journal Tourism Res., 3: 253–259. Available on-line at: https://doi.org/web.ebscohost.com/CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Richards G. 2004. “The Impact of Cultural Events on City Image: Rotterdam, Cultural Capital of Europe 2001”. Urban Studies, 41(10): 1931–1951. Available on-line at: https://doi.org/web.ebscohost.com/CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Smiths R. 2003. Sustainable Tourism-Destination Development. Available on-line at https://doi.org/web.ebscohost.com/Google Scholar
  11. Stanciulescu, Gabriela. 1999. Management of sustainable tourism in the Black Sea riparian countries, Bucharest. ALL Publishing House.Google Scholar
  12. Stanciulescu, Gabriela. 2004. “Regional strategies and policies for the sustainable tourism development in the Danube space, Bucharest” Publishing House of the Academy of Economic Studies, 168–170.Google Scholar
  13. Stănciulescu G. 2004. Strategii şi politici regionale de dezvoltare durabilă a spaţiului dunărean. Provocări pentru turism. Bucharest, Publishing House of the Academy of Economic Studies.Google Scholar
  14. Therkelsen A. 2003. “Imagining Places: Image Formation of Tourists and Its Consequences for Destination Promotion”, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 3(2). Available on-line at: https://doi.org/web.ebscohost.com/

Copyright information

© Japan Economic Policy Association (JEPA) 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Tourism-ServicesAcademy of Economic Studies, Faculty of CommerceBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations