Advertisement

Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 101, Issue 1, pp 87–91 | Cite as

Are Canadian Women Achieving a Fit Pregnancy? A Pilot Study

  • Tamara R. Cohen
  • Hugues Plourde
  • Kristine G. KoskiEmail author
Quantitative Research 2009 Student Award Winner

Abstract

Objectives

Canadian recommendations exist for energy intake (EI), physical activity (PA) and gestational weight gain (GWG) to help pregnant women avoid excessive GWG and attain “fit pregnancies”. Our objectives were: 1) to measure daily EI, PA and GWG to observe whether pregnant women were meeting recommendations, 2) to explore the impact of health care provider advice on PA and GWG, and 3) to determine behaviours associated with recommended weekly GWG.

Methods

Women (n=81) were recruited from prenatal classes. Current weight and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were documented. Current PA levels and provider advice for PA and GWG were surveyed using questionnaires. Dietary recalls and pedometer steps were recorded for three and seven days respectively.

Results

The majority of our women were classified as having average pre-pregnancy body mass indices (BMI) of 23.3 ± 4 kg/m2, average EI of 2237 kcal/d and energy expenditure (EE) of 2328 kcal/d, but with weekly rates of GWG in excess of current recommendations despite having received advice about GWG (74%) and PA (73%). Most were classified as sedentary (<5000 steps/day (d)) and 36% as low active (<7500 steps/d). Women were most likely to achieve appropriate GWG if their total PA was >8.5 MET-hr/wk.

Conclusion

Health care providers need to provide appropriate PA and GWG guidelines to pregnant women. Development of pregnancy step and MET-hr/wk recommendations are warranted in order to promote greater PA during pregnancy.

Keywords

Physical activity; pregnancy; gestational weight gain; information resources; steps 

Résumé

Objectifs

Les recommandations canadiennes à l’égard de l’apport énergétique (AE), la pratique de l’activité physique (AP) et le gain de poids gestationnel (GPG) peuvent être utiles pour éviter un GPG excessif et atteindre une « grossesse en santé ». Les objectifs de cette étude étaient: 1) estimer l’AE et l’AP quotidiens et le GPG pour établir si les femmes enceintes observent les recommandations, 2) étudier l’impact des conseils reçus des professionnels de la santé sur le GPG et la pratique d’AP, et 3) déterminer les comportements associés au GPG recommandé.

Méthodes

Des femmes enceintes (n=81) ont été recrutées lors de classes prénatales. Le poids actuel mesuré et le poids auto-rapporté avant la grossesse ont été utilisés pour les analyses. La pratique actuelle d’AP et les conseils reçus concernant le GPG et l’AP ont été estimés à l’aide de questionnaires. La collecte de données incluait aussi trois rappels de 24-heures et de l’utilisation d’un pédomètre durant 7 jours.

Résultats

Les participantes à l’étude avaient un indice de masse corporelle (IMC) moyen de 23,3 ± 4 kg/m2 avant la grossesse, un AE moyen de 2237 kcal/jour et une dépense énergétique moyenne de 2328 kcal/jour. Par contre, celles-ci ont eu un GPG hebdomadaire supérieur aux recommandations malgré avoir reçu des conseils au sujet de GPG (74%) et de l’AP (73%). La plupart des femmes étaient sédentaires (<5000 pas/jour); 36% étaient légèrement actives (<7500 pas/jour). Les femmes ayant un niveau d’activité physique supérieur à 8,5 MET-hr/sem avait plus de chance d’avoir un GPG approprié.

Conclusion

Les professionnels de la santé doivent modifier les conseils relatifs à l’AP et au GPG donnés aux femmes enceintes. L’élaboration de recommandations pour le nombre de pas quotidien durant la grossesse et le nombre de MET-hr/sem est justifié pour encourager la pratique de l’AP lors de la grossesse.

Motsclés

activité physique; grossesse; gain de poids gestationnel; source d’information; pas 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II: Nutrient Supplements. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Entin PL, Munhall KM. Recommendations regarding exercise during pregnancy made by private/small group practice obstetricians in the USA. J Sci Med Sport 2006;5:449–58.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    FAO/WHO, Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series. Human Energy Requirements Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation Food and Agriculture Organization. Rome, Italy: Energy Requirements of Pregnancy, 2004.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Health Canada. Eating Well With Canada’s Food Guide. Available at: https://doi.org/www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/alt_formats/hpfb-dgpsa/pdf/food-guide-aliment/ view_eatwell_vue_bienmang_e.pdf (Accessed September 18, 2007).
  5. 5.
    Davies GA, Wolfe LA, Mottola MF, MacKinnon C, Arsenault MY, Bartellas E, et al. Exercise in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Can J Obstet Gynaecol 2003;25(6):516–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Health Canada. Public Health Agency: The Sensible Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy. Available at: https://doi.org/www.healthypregnancy.gc.ca (Accessed July 22, 2007).
  7. 7.
    Institute of Medicine. Brief Report: Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexam-ining the Guidelines. Available at: https://doi.org/www.iom.edu (Accessed July 11, 2009).
  8. 8.
    Ministry of Health Promotion. Active 2010: Ontario’s Sport and Physical Activity Strategy. Ottawa, ON, 2005. Available at: https://doi.org/www.active2010.ca/Documents/active2010-strategy-e.pdf (Accessed July 29, 2009).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Government of Quebec. Mon style de marche. Available at: https://doi.org/www.kino-quebec.qc.ca/marche/ (Accessed July 11, 2009).
  10. 10.
    Clarke PE, Gross H. Women’s behaviour, beliefs and information sources about physical exercise in pregnancy. Midwifery 2009;20(2):133–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Symons Downs D, Hausenblas H. Women’s exercise beliefs and behaviors during their pregnancy and postpartum. J Midwifery Womens Health 2004;49(2):138–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Symons Downs D, Ulbrecht J. Understanding exercise beliefs and behaviors in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2006;29(2):236–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stotland NE, Haas JS, Brawarsky P, Jackson RA, Fuentes-Afflick E, Escobar GJ. Body mass index, provider advice, and target gestational weight gain. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105(3):633–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Polley B, Wing R, Sims C. Randomized controlled trial to prevent excessive weight gain in pregnant women. Int J Obes 2002;26:1494–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Olson CM, Strawderman M, Reed R. Efficacy of an intervention to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191(2):530–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gray-Donald K, Robinson E, Collier A, David K, Renaud L, Rodrigues S. Intervening to reduce weight gain in pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus in Cree communities: An evaluation. CMAJ 2000;163(10):1247–51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kuhlmann A, Dietz PM, Galavotti C, England LJ. Weight-management interventions for pregnant or postpartum women. Am J Prev Med 2008;34(6):523–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kinnunen T, Pasanen M, Aittasalo M, Fogelholm M, Weiderpass E, Luoto R. Reducing postpartum weight retention - A pilot trial in primary health care. Nutr J 2007;6(1):21.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chasan-Taber L, Schmidt MD, Roberts DE, Hosmer D, Markenson G, Freedson PS. Development and validation of a pregnancy physical activity questionnaire. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36:1750–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mottola MF, Campbell MK. Activity patterns during pregnancy. Can J Appl Physiol 2003;28:642–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wolfe L, Mottola M. PARmed-X for Pregnancy. Ottawa: Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, 2002;1–4.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Santé Canada. Nutrition pour une grossesse en santé: lignes directrices nationales à l’intention des femmes en âge de procréer. Ottawa: Ministre des Travaux publics et des Services gouvernementaux Canada, 1999.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, et al. Physical activity and public health. Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2007;116:1081–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Crouter SE, Schneider PL, Karabulut M, Bassett DR Jr. Validity of 10 electronic pedometers for measuring steps, distance, and energy cost. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(8):1455–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schneider PL, Crouter SE, Lukajic O, Basset DR Jr. Accuracy and reliability of 10 pedometers for measuring steps over a 400-m walk. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(10):1779–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Health Canada. Canadian Nutrient File. Available at: https://doi.org/webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/index-eng.jsp (Accessed November 19, 2009).

Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tamara R. Cohen
    • 1
  • Hugues Plourde
    • 1
  • Kristine G. Koski
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition and Faculty of MedicineSte Anne de BellevueCanada

Personalised recommendations