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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 101, Issue 1, pp 50–55 | Cite as

Seroprevalence and Correlates of HIV and HCV among Injecting Drug Users in Edmonton, Alberta

  • Sabrina S. Plitt
  • Jennifer Gratrix
  • Sharyn Hewitt
  • Patsy Conroy
  • Tracy Parnell
  • Beverly Lucki
  • Vicki Pilling
  • Barbara Anderson
  • Yogesh Choudri
  • Chris P. Archibald
  • Ameeta E. SinghEmail author
Quantitative Research
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for acquiring human immunodefiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) via parenteral and sexual transmission. We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of HIV and HCV for IDUs recruited in Edmonton, Alberta.

Methods

Edmonton was one site of a multi-site, national survey (I-Track Study). From April to June 2005, IDUs were recruited and administered a questionnaire collecting information on demographics, drug use, sexual behaviours, and HIV/HCV testing behaviours. Finger-prick blood samples were collected for serology testing. Seroprevalence of HIV and HCV was determined and correlates of infection were assessed using logistic regression.

Results

Of 275 IDUs, 68% were male, the median age was 38 years and 70.6% were Aboriginal. HIV prevalence was 23.9%, HCV prevalence was 66.1% and HIV/HCV co-infection was 22.8%. Cocaine (36.9%) was reported to be the drug injected most often in the previous six months. Correlates for HIV were sex trade (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.0–8.3) for women, and older age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.2) and needle exchange program (NEP) use (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.3–23.7) for men. For women, having a casual sex partner was protective for HCV (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.10–0.78). Independent correlates for HCV among males included age (AOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.3) and younger age of first injection (AOR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87–0.96).

Conclusion

The high HIV and HCV prevalence found in this study among IDUs in Edmonton highlights the complex needs of the IDU community and the continued need for targeted programming.

Keywords

HIV HCV injection drug use Canada 

Résumé

Objectifs

Les utilisateurs de drogues par injection (UDI) sont à risque d’être infectés par le virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et le virus de l’hépatite C (VHC) par la voie parentérale et la transmission sexuelle. Nous avons déterminé la séroprévalence et les corrélats du VIH et VHC chez des UDI recrutés à Edmonton (Alberta).

Méthode

Edmonton était l’un des nombreux sites d’une enquête nationale (étude I-Track). D’avril à juin 2005, nous avons recruté des UDI et nous leur avons administré un questionnaire sur leur profil démographique, leur consommation de drogue, leur comportement sexuel et leur comportement à l’égard de la détection du VIH et du VHC. Des échantillons de sang ont été prélevés par ponction digitale pour des tests sérologiques. Nous avons déterminé la séroprévalence du VIH et VHC et évalué les corrélats des infections par régression logistique.

Résultats

Des 275 UDI, 68% étaient des hommes, leur âge médian était de 38 ans, et 70,6% étaient des Autochtones. Les prévalences du VIH et VHC étaient respectivement de 23,9% et de 66,1%, et la coinfection par le VIH et le VHC était de 22,8%. La cocaïne (36,9%) était la drogue injectée le plus souvent au cours des six derniers mois. Chez les femmes, le commerce du sexe était corrélé avec le VIH (RC 2,9, IC 95% 1,0–8,3), tandis que chez les hommes, les corrélats du VIH étaient le fait d’être plus âgé (RC 1,1, IC 95% 1,0–1,2) et le recours aux programmes d’échange de seringues (PES) (RC 5,7, IC 95% 1,3–23,7). Pour les femmes, avoir un partenaire sexuel occasionnel était un facteur de protection contre le VHC (RC 0,28, IC 95% 0,10–0,78). Les corrélats indépendants pour le VHC chez les hommes incluaient l’âge (RCa 1,2, IC 95% 1,1–1,3) et un plus jeune âge lors de la première injection (RCa 0,92, IC 95% 0,87–0,96).

Conclusion

La forte prévalence du VIH et du VHC dans cette étude auprès des UDI d’Edmonton met en évidence la complexité des besoins de la communauté UDI et la nécessité continuelle d’avoir des programmes ciblés.

Motsclés

VIH VHC utilisation de drogues par injection Canada 

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabrina S. Plitt
    • 1
  • Jennifer Gratrix
    • 2
  • Sharyn Hewitt
    • 2
  • Patsy Conroy
    • 2
  • Tracy Parnell
    • 2
  • Beverly Lucki
    • 2
  • Vicki Pilling
    • 2
  • Barbara Anderson
    • 2
  • Yogesh Choudri
    • 1
  • Chris P. Archibald
    • 1
  • Ameeta E. Singh
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Surveillance and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Communicable Disease and Infection ControlPublic Health Agency of CanadaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Alberta Health Services-Edmonton STD CentreEdmontonCanada

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