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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 12–16 | Cite as

Nutrient Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns Among Ontario Students in Grades Six, Seven, and Eight

  • Rhona M. Hanning
  • Sarah J. Woodruff
  • Irene Lambraki
  • Linda Jessup
  • Pete Driezen
  • Caroline C. Murphy
Article

Abstract

Background

The increased prevalence of overweight in Canadian children has stimulated interest in their lifestyle behaviours. The purpose of this research was to investigate dietary intake and food behaviours of Ontario students in grades six, seven, and eight.

Methods

Males and females from grades six to eight were recruited from a stratified random selection of schools from Ontario. Data were collected using the web-based “Food Behaviour Questionnaire”, which included a 24-hour diet recall and food frequency questionnaire. Nutrients were analyzed using ESHA Food Processor and the 2001 Canadian Nutrient File database. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported weight and height, and classified according to the Centers for Disease Control BMI for age percentiles.

Results

The sample included males (n=315) and females (n=346) in grades 6, 7, and 8 from 15 schools in Ontario. According to Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating (CFGHE), median intakes were below recommendations for all participants, with the exception of meat and alternatives. Participants consumed a median of 54%, 15%, 31%, 11%, and 8% of total energy from carbohydrates, protein, total fat, saturated fat, and added sugars, respectively. Participants consumed 25% of total energy from foods from the “other” food group (CFGHE). Males had higher intakes of energy, carbohydrates, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, protein, thiamine, niacin, iron, and zinc than females (all p<0.05), and consumed more grain products servings (p<0.05).

Conclusion

The high consumption of “other” foods, at the expense of nutrient-dense food groups, may ultimately be contributing to the increased weights in childhood and adolescence.

MeSH terms

Child adolescent food intake assessment nutrition dietary habits 

Résumé

Contexte

La prévalence accrue du surpoids chez les enfants canadiens ravive l’intérêt pour les comportements liés au mode de vie des enfants. Notre étude portait sur les apports et les comportements alimentaires d’élèves ontariens de 6e, 7e et 8e année.

Méthode

Nous avons recruté des garçons et des filles de la 6e à la 8e année à partir d’un échantillon aléatoire stratifié d’écoles de l’Ontario. Les données ont été recueillies à l’aide d’un questionnaire en ligne sur les comportements alimentaires, incluant une feuille de rappel des aliments ingérés pendant les 24 dernières heures et un questionnaire sur la fréquence de consommation des produits alimentaires. Les nutriments ont été analysés avec le logiciel Food Processor d’ESHA Research et la version 2001 du Fichier canadien sur les éléments nutritifs. L’indice de masse corporelle (IMC) a été calculé d’après le poids et la taille déclarés par les répondants, puis classé selon les centiles d’IMC selon l’âge publiés par les Centres américains de contrôle des maladies.

Résultats

L’échantillon comportait des garçons (n=315) et des filles (n=346) des classes de 6e, 7e et 8e année de 15 écoles de l’Ontario. Selon le Guide alimentaire canadien pour manger sainement (GACMS), les apports médians étaient inférieurs aux recommandations chez tous les participants, sauf les apports en viandes et substituts. Les participants consommaient en moyenne 54 %, 15 %, 31 %, 11 % et 8 % de leur apport énergétique total sous forme de glucides, de protéines, de matières grasses en général, de graisses saturées et de sucres ajoutés, respectivement. Le quart (25 %) de l’apport énergétique alimentaire total provenait du groupe « autres aliments » (GACMS). Les garçons avaient des apports plus élevés en calories, en glucides, en matières grasses, en graisses saturées, en graisses monoinsaturées, en protéines, en thiamine, en niacine, en fer et en zinc que les filles (p<0,05 dans tous les cas), et ils consommaient plus de portions de produits céréaliers (p<0,05).

Conclusion

La consommation élevée des « autres aliments » aux dépens des groupes riches en éléments nutritifs pourrait en bout de ligne contribuer aux gains de poids observés durant l’enfance et l’adolescence.

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rhona M. Hanning
    • 1
  • Sarah J. Woodruff
    • 1
  • Irene Lambraki
    • 1
  • Linda Jessup
    • 1
  • Pete Driezen
    • 2
  • Caroline C. Murphy
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Health Studies and GerontologyUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Population Health Research GroupUniversity of WaterlooCanada
  3. 3.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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