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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 101, Issue 4, pp 318–321 | Cite as

Vitamin D Intake From Food and Supplements Among Ontario Women Based on the US Block Food Frequency Questionnaire With and Without Modification for Canadian Food Values

  • Laura N. AndersonEmail author
  • Michelle Cotterchio
  • Beatrice A. Boucher
  • Julia A. Knight
  • Torin Block
Quantitative Research
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

To measure and compare dietary vitamin D intake among women in Ontario using a modified Block 1998 (US) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) before and after modification for Canadian-specific vitamin D food fortification.

Methods

An age-stratified random sample of 3,471 women in Ontario (aged 25–74) was identified using random digit dialing methods. Standard US food values and a modified Canadian-specific vitamin D nutrient analysis were applied to the FFQ.

Results

Intake of vitamin D from foods (Canadian nutrient analysis) was 5.3 ± 3.4 μg/day (mean ± SD) and 45% of women reported vitamin D intake from supplements. Total vitamin D intakes met the current Adequate Intakes of 5, 10 and 15 μg/day for only 62%, 47%, and 28% of women aged <-50, 51–70 and >-71, respectively. Relatively high agreement was found between the US and Canadian nutrient analysis methods of measuring vitamin D from food (weighted kappa = 0.74, 95% CI 0.72–0.76). Intake differences (US minus Canadian) ranged from -5.0 μg/day to +2.0 μg/day (1st-99th percentile); however, the mean difference was only -0.54 μg/day (95% CI: -0.58 to -0.50).

Conclusions

Lower than recommended total vitamin D intakes were observed among our study participants which may negatively impact the health status of women. Adjustment for Canadian food fortification and the inclusion of fatty fish had little impact on the measurement of vitamin D from food.

Key words

Vitamin D food fortified nutrition surveys female Canada United States 

Résumé

Objectifs

Mesurer et comparer l’apport alimentaire en vitamine D chez les femmes en Ontario à l’aide d’un questionnaire Block (É.-U., 1998) sur la fréquence de consommation des produits alimentaires (FCPA) avant et après avoir modifié ce questionnaire en fonction de l’enrichissement des aliments en vitamine D au Canada.

Méthode

Par composition aléatoire, nous avons créé un échantillon aléatoire de 3 471 Ontariennes (de 25 à 74 ans) stratifié selon l’âge. Nous avons appliqué à la FCPA les valeurs nutritives standard des États-Unis et une analyse des apports en vitamine D modifiée pour le Canada.

Résultats

L’apport alimentaire en vitamine D (analyse des nutriments au Canada) était de 5,3 ± 3,4 μg/jour (moyenne ± déviation sensible [DS]), et 45 % des femmes ont déclaré prendre des suppléments de vitamine D. Les apports totaux en vitamine D n’étaient conformes aux apports adéquats en vigueur (5, 10 et 15 μg/jour) que pour 62 %, 47 % et 28 % des femmes de 50 ans et moins, de 51 à 70 ans, et de 71 ans et plus, respectivement. Nous avons observé une correspondance relativement élevée entre les méthodes états-unienne et canadienne de mesure de la valeur nutritive des aliments en vitamine D (coefficient kappa pondéré = 0,74, IC de 95 % = 0,72–0,76). Les écarts dans les apports (états-uniens moins canadiens) allaient de -5,0 μg/jour à +2,0 μg/jour (1er au 99e centile); cependant, l’écart moyen n’était que de -0,54 μg/jour (IC de 95 % = -0,58 à -0,50).

Conclusion

Des apports totaux en vitamine D inférieurs aux recommandations ont été observés chez les participantes de l’étude, ce qui pourrait avoir des incidences négatives sur l’état de santé des femmes. Le fait de tenir compte de l’enrichissement des aliments au Canada et d’inclure les poissons gras a eu peu d’impact sur la mesure de l’apport alimentaire en vitamine D.

Mots clés

vitamine D aliments enrichis enquêtes nutritionnelles femmes Canada États-Unis 

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura N. Anderson
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  • Michelle Cotterchio
    • 1
    • 5
  • Beatrice A. Boucher
    • 1
    • 5
    • 2
  • Julia A. Knight
    • 1
    • 3
  • Torin Block
    • 4
  1. 1.Dalla Lana School of Public HealthUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Prosserman Centre for Health Research, Samuel Lunenfeld Research InstituteMount Sinai HospitalTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Block Dietary Data Systems, NutritionquestBerkeleyUSA
  5. 5.Population Studies and SurveillanceCancer Care OntarioTorontoCanada

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