Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 95, Issue 5, pp 366–368 | Cite as

Identifying and Addressing the Social Determinants of the Incidence and Successful Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Canada

  • Vanessa Ling YuEmail author
  • Dennis Raphael


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Canadian Diabetes Association. Diabetes and Canada’s health system: Brief to the Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada submitted by the Canadian Diabetes Association. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Diabetes Association, 2002.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Health Canada. Taking Action on Population Health: A Position Paper for Health Promotion and Programs Branch Staff. Ottawa, ON: Health Canada, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Canadian Institute for Health Information. Charting the Course: A Pan-Canadian Consultation on Population and Public Health Priorities. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2002.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frank J, DiRuggiero E. Mapping and tapping the wellsprings of health. Toronto, ON: Institute of Population and Public Health, 2002.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marmot M, Wilkinson R. Social Determinants of Health. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Raphael D. Social Determinants of Health: Canadian Perspectives. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Health Canada. Healthy Living Strategy, 2003. On-line at Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chronic Disease Prevention Alliance of Canada. Who We Are. 2003. On-line at Scholar
  9. 9.
    Health Canada. Diabetes in Canada: National statistics and opportunities for improved surveillance, prevention, and control. Ottawa, ON: Health Canada, 1999.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    McKinlay J, Marceau L. U.S. public health and the 21st century: Diabetes mellitu. Lances. 2000;356:757–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ford E, Giles W, Dietz W. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination survey. JAM. 2002;287(3):356–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Canadian Diabetes Association. About Diabetes. 2003. On-line at Scholar
  13. 13.
    Canadian Medical Association, Canadian Diabetes Association. 1998 clinical practice guidelines for the management of diabetes in Canad. CMA. 1998;159(8 (Suppl):S1–S29.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    LeBlanc C. The growing epidemic of child and youth obesity - Another twis. Can J Public Healt. 2003;94(5):329–31.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Raphael D, Anstice S, Raine K, McGannon K. The social determinants of the incidence and management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Are we prepared to rethink our questions and redirect our research activitie. Leadership in Health Service. 2003;16:10–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krieger NA. Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: An eco-social perspectiv. Int J Epidemio. 2001;30:668–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Raphael D, Colman R, Labonte R. Income, health and disease in Canada: Current state of knowledge, information gaps and areas of needed inquiry. Toronto, ON: York University, 2003.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hux J, Booth G, Laupacis A. The ICES Practice Atlas: Diabetes in Ontario. In: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, and the Canadian Diabetes Association, 2002.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    James R, Young T, Mustard C, Blanchard J. The health of Canadians with diabete. Health Report. 1997;9(3):47–52.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anstice S. Diabetes and disadvantage: Everyday experiences of type II diabetes among sole-support mothers living on income-support [MSc. Thesis]. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto, 2002.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Riste L, Khan F, Cruickshank K. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes in all ethnic groups, including Europeans, in a British inner city. Relative poverty, history, inactivity, or 21st century Europ. Diabetes Car. 2001;24:1377–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Raine K. Poverty, Ethnicity and Type 2 Diabete. Int Diabetes Moniton. 2002;14(4):15–16.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wilkins R, Berthelot J-M, Ng E. Trends in mortality by neighbourhood income in urban Canada from 1971 to 1996. Health Report. (Stats Can) 2002;13(Supplement):1–28.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dunn J, Hargreaves S, Alex JS. Are Widening Income Inequalities Making Canada Less Healthy? Ontario Public Health Association; The Health Determinants Partnership - Making Connections Project, 2002. On-line at Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hurtig M. Pay the Rent or Feed the Kids: The Tragedy and Disgrace of Poverty in Canada. Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart, 1999.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Raphael D. When social policy is health policy: Why increasing poverty and low income threatens Canadians’ health and health care syste. Can Rev Soc Policy. 2003;(51):9–28.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Choi BCK, Shi F. Risk factors for diabetes melli-tus by age and sex: Results of the National Population Health survey. Diabetologis. 2001;44(10):1221–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Health Canada. Introduction: Aboriginal diabetes initiative. Ottawa, ON: Health Canada, 2002.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Young KT, Reading J, Elias B, O’Neil J. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in Canada’s first nations: Status of an epidemic in progres. CMA. 2000;163(5):561–66.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Anderson J, Wiggins R, Rawjani R, Holbrook A, Blue C, Ng M. Living with a chronic illness: Chinese-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women with diabetes - exploring factors that influence managemen. Soc Sci Med. 1995;41(2):181–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tjepkema M. The health of the off-reserve Aboriginal populatio. Health Report. Supplement 2002;13.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lynch JW, Smith GD, Kaplan GA, House JS. Income inequality and mortality: Importance to health of individual income, psychosocial environment, or material condition. BM. 2000;320:1220–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lynch J. Income inequality and health: Expanding the debat. Soc Sci Met. 2000;51:1001–5.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shaw M, Dorling D, Gordon D, Smith GD. The Widening Gap: Health Inequalities and Policy in Britain. Bristol, UK: The Policy Press, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Leger J, Levy-Marchal C, Bloch J, Pinet A, Chevenne D, Phillips DI, et al. Fetal growth and insulin secretion in adult lif. Diabetologis. 1994;37(6):592–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Phipps K, Barker DJ, Hales CN, Fall CH, Osmond C, Clark PM. Fetal growth and impaired glucose tolerance in men and women. Diabetologis. 1993;36(10):973–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hales CN, Barker DJ. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Br Med Bull. 2001;60:5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    McCance DR, Pettitt DJ, Hanson LR, Jacobsson LTH, Knowler WC. Birth weight and non insulin dependant diabetes mellitus: Thrifty genotype, thrifty phenotype, or surviving a small baby genotyp. BM. 1994;308:942–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jaquet D, Gaboriau A, Czernichow P, Levy-Marchal C. Insulin resistance early in adulthood in subjects born with intrauterine growth retardatio. J Endocrinology Metabolis. 2000;85(4):1401–6.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Beringue F, Blondeau B, Castellotti MC, Breant B, Czernichow P, Polak M. Endocrine pancreas development in growth-retarded human fetuse. Diabetes Car. 2002;51:385–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brunner E, Marmot MG. Social organization, stress, and health. In: Marmot MG, Wilkinson RG (Eds.). Social Determinants of Health. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1999;17–43.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Marmot M, Shipley M, Brunner E, Hemingway H. Relative contribution of early life and adul socioeconomic factors to adult morbidity in the Whitehall II Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001;55:301–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Blane D, Brunner E, Wilkinson R (Eds.. Health and Social Organization. London, UK: Routledge, 1996.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mitchell R, Dorling D, Shaw M. Inequalities in Life and Death. What if Britain Were More Equal. Bristol, UK: The Policy Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rose G. Strategy of Preventive Medicine. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wilkinson R, Marmot M. Social Determinants of Health The Solid Fact., 2nd edition. Copenhagan, Denmark: World Health Organization, Europe Office, 2003. On-line at Scholar
  47. 47.
    Canadian Public Health Association. Creating Conditions for Health: Recommendations for the Commission. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Public Health Association, 2001.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Canadian Public Health Association. Reducing poverty and its negative effects on health: Resolution passed at the 2000 CPHA Annual Meeting. Canadian Public Health Association, 2000. On-line at Scholar
  49. 49.
    Raphael D, Curry-Stevens A. Toronto Charter for a Healthy Canada. Toronto, ON: School of Health Policy and Management, York University and Centre for Social Justice, 2003. On-line at Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vozoris N, Davis B, Tarasuk V. The affordability of a nutritious diet for households on welfare in Toront. Can J Public Health. 2002;93(1):36–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Emes J, Kreptul A. The Adequacy of Welfare Benefits in Canada. Critical Issues Bulletin: Fraser Institute, 1999.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Canadian Public Health Association. Health Impacts of Social and Economic Conditions: Implications for Public Policy. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Public Health Association, 1997.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Canadian Public Health Association. Discussion Paper on the Health Impact of Unemployment. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Public Health Association, 1996.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Canadian Public Health Association. Inequities in Health. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Public Health Association, 1993.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hwang S, Bugeja A. Barriers to appropriate diabetes management among homeless people in Toront. CMA. 2000;163(2):161–65.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Travers KD. Using qualitative research to understand the sociocultural origins of diabetes among Cape Breton Mi’kma. Chron Dis Can. 1995;166(4).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wamala S, Lynch J, Horsten M. Education and the metabolic syndrome in women. Diabetes Car. 1999;22(12):1999–2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Callaghan D, Williams A. Living with diabetes: Issues for nursing practic. J Advanced Nursin. 1994;20:132–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Maclean H, Oram B. Living with Diabetes: Personal Stories and Strategies for Coping. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Arts and SciencesYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.School of Health Policy and ManagementYork UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations