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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 95, Issue 4, pp 258–263 | Cite as

What Factors Are Associated with Poor Developmental Attainment in Young Canadian Children?

  • Teresa To
  • Astrid Guttmann
  • Paul T. Dick
  • Jay D. Rosenfield
  • Patricia C. Parkin
  • Hongmei Cao
  • Tatiana N. Vydykhan
  • Marjan Tassoudji
  • Jennifer K. Harris
Article

Abstract

Background: This study was undertaken to determine the association between poor developmental attainment (PDA) and biological, home environment and socio-demographic factors in a population-based sample of Canadian children.

Methods: Cross-sectional data from two cycles (1994/95 and 1996/97) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were used. Children aged 1–5 years were included. PDA was defined as ≤15th percentile for motor and social developmental skills (1–3 year olds) or Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (4–5 year olds). Multiple logistic regression was used.

Results: The proportion of children with PDA varies across Canada, between males and females, and by age. Among 1 year olds in Cycle I, having a low birthweight (OR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.1–5.2), being male (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2–2.2) and having a mother who is an immigrant (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.1–2.2) increased the odds of PDA. Similar results were observed in Cycle II. Among children aged 4–5 years in Cycle II, having a mother who is an immigrant (OR=5.3; 95% CI: 4.1–6.9) and a mother with low educational attainment (OR=2.8; 95% CI: 2.1–3.9) increased the odds of PDA. Low income was a significant predictor of PDA across all age groups.

Interpretation: The strong and consistent associations with living in a low-income household, having a mother with low educational attainment or a mother who is an immigrant highlight the need for targeting developmental assessments and services to this population.

Résumé

Contexte: Cette étude a été effectuée pour évaluer les liens entre le niveau de développement (ND) et les facteurs biologiques, domestiques et socio-démographiques dans un échantillon représentatif d’enfants canadiens.

Méthode: Les données transversales de deux cycles (1994–1995 et 1996–1997) de l’Enquête longitudinale nationale sur les enfants et les jeunes ont été utilisées. Les enfants âgés de 1–5 ans ont été inclus. Un faible ND a été défini comme inférieur au 15e percentile pour les aptitudes de développement moteur et social (1–3 ans) ou selon le Test d’échelle vocabulaire en image Peabody (4–5 ans). La régression logistique multiple a été utilisée.

Résultats: La proportion d’enfants souffrant d’un faible ND varie d’une région à l’autre du Canada selon le sexe et l’âge. Chez les enfants de 1 an du Cycle I, le fait d’avoir un faible poids à la naissance (RC=3,3; IC de 95 % = 2,1–5,2), d’être un garçon (RC=1,6; IC de 95 % = 1,2–2,2) et d’avoir une mère immigrée (RC=1,6; IC de 95 % = 1,1–2,2) augmentaient le risque de présenter un faible ND. Les mêmes résultats ont été obtenus dans le Cycle II. Chez les enfants de 4–5 ans du Cycle II, le fait d’avoir une mère immigrée (RC=5,3; IC de 95 % = 4,1–6,9) et une mère avec un faible niveau d’études (RC=2,8; IC de 95 % = 2,1–3,9) augmentaient le risque de présenter un faible ND. Un foyer à faible revenu était un facteur de risque significatif de faible ND dans toutes les catégories d’âge.

Interprétation: Les liens forts et cohérents entre le fait de vivre dans un foyer à faible revenu, d’avoir une mère faiblement scolarisée et d’avoir une mère immigrée soulignent le besoin de cibler des contrôles et des services de développement pour ces enfants.

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teresa To
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Astrid Guttmann
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • Paul T. Dick
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Jay D. Rosenfield
    • 3
    • 5
    • 7
    • 8
  • Patricia C. Parkin
    • 1
    • 3
    • 5
    • 6
  • Hongmei Cao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tatiana N. Vydykhan
    • 1
  • Marjan Tassoudji
    • 1
  • Jennifer K. Harris
    • 1
  1. 1.Population Health Sciences Program, Research InstituteThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Public Health SciencesUniversity of TorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TorontoCanada
  4. 4.The Institute for Clinical Evaluative SciencesTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Division of Paediatric Medicine and the Paediatric Outcomes Research TeamThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  6. 6.Department of Health Policy, Management and EvaluationUniversity of TorontoCanada
  7. 7.Brain and Behavioural Program, Research InstituteThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  8. 8.Division of NeurologyThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada

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