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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 93, Issue 6, pp 447–451 | Cite as

The Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Child Pedestrian Injury in Edmonton

  • Niko Yiannakoulias
  • Karen E. Smoyer-Tomic
  • John HodgsonEmail author
  • Donald W. Spady
  • Brian H. Rowe
  • Donald C. Voaklander
Article

Abstract

Objectives: This paper describes the temporal and spatial distribution of child pedestrian injury within Edmonton, Alberta for four fiscal years (1995–96 through 1998–99), and compares this pattern to temporal and spatial data on traffic volume.

Methods: We used injury data obtained through an ongoing emergency department (ED) surveillance system involving all hospitals in Alberta’s Capital Health Region. We identified peak times of injury occurrence and the location of high injury incidence as indicated by census tract of residence. Empirical Bayes estimation procedures were used to calculate stable injury incidence ratios. Cartographic and correlation analyses identified the relationship between traffic volume and injury incidence.

Results: Child pedestrian injury occurred most frequently during morning (0700–0900 hrs) and late afternoon (1500–1800 hrs) which corresponds with peak periods of vehicular traffic flow. The highest incidence rates occurred in or near areas of high traffic volume, notably in the central and west-central parts of Edmonton.

Discussion: These findings emphasize the importance of considering spatial and temporal patterns in pedestrian injury research, as well as the need to incorporate these patterns in prevention strategies. Changing the times that children attend school may reduce the convergence of pedestrian and vehicular traffic.

Résumé

Objectifs: Notre étude décrit la répartition spatiale et temporelle des blessures survenues chez les enfants circulant à pied à Edmonton (Alberta) pendant quatre années financières (1995–1996 à 1998–1999) et compare ce schéma aux données spatio-temporelles sur le débit routier.

Méthode: Nos données sur les blessures provenaient du système de surveillance continue des services d’urgence des hôpitaux de la région sanitaire de la capitale albertaine. Nous avons cerné les périodes de pointe pour les blessures et les endroits où elles se produisaient le plus par secteur de recensement. En établissant des estimations empiriques par la méthode de Bayes, nous avons calculé les rapports d’incidence stables des blessures. Des analyses cartographiques et de corrélation ont mis au jour un lien entre le débit routier et l’incidence des blessures.

Résultats: Les blessures aux enfants circulant à pied étaient les plus fréquentes le matin (entre 7 h et 9 h) et en fin d’après-midi (entre 15 h et 18 h), ce qui correspond aux heures de pointe de la circulation routière. Les taux d’incidence les plus élevés ont été constatés à l’intérieur ou à proximité des zones de fort débit, tout particulièrement dans le centre-ville et le centre-ouest d’Edmonton.

Question à débattre: Ces résultats soulignent l’importance de tenir compte des schémas spatiotemporels dans la recherche sur les blessures aux piétons et de les intégrer dans les stratégies de prévention. En modifiant les heures d’école, on pourrait aussi réduire la convergence de la circulation des piétons et des véhicules.

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niko Yiannakoulias
    • 1
  • Karen E. Smoyer-Tomic
    • 1
  • John Hodgson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Donald W. Spady
    • 2
  • Brian H. Rowe
    • 3
  • Donald C. Voaklander
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of AlbertaCanada
  3. 3.Division of Emergency MedicineUniversity of AlbertaCanada
  4. 4.British Columbia Rural and Remote Health Research InstituteCanada

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