Advertisement

Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 93, Issue 3, pp 183–187 | Cite as

A Review of Theory and Health Promotion Strategies for New Immigrant

  • Ilene Hyman
  • Sepali Guruge
Article

Abstract

Background: There has been little empirical research on the best ways to influence women’s health behaviour, particularly among women who are recent immigrants to Canada.

Methods: This paper presents information from a literature review conducted for the Ontario Women’ Health Council on effective theoretical models and health promotion strategies for women.

Findings: Health promotion activities for all women should address theoretical variables as well as the broader determinants of women’s health. New immigrant women represent a diverse group who often face multiple cultural, linguistic and systemic barriers to adopting and maintaining healthy behaviour.

Interpretation: Many theoretical constructs of potential importance to recent immigrant women have not been adequately researched. More research is also needed on the relevancy and the applicability of commonly used health promotion approaches for this group.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chen J, Ng E, Wilkins R. The health of Canada’s immigrants in 1994–95. Health Reports 1996;7(4):33–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen J, Ng E, Wilkins R. Health expectancy by immigrant status. Health Reports 1996;8(3):29–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beiser M, Devins G, Dion R, Hyman I, Lin E. Immigration, Acculturation and Health: Final Report to the National Health Research and Development Program. Toronto, ON: 6606-6614-NPHS, 1997.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hyman I. Immigrant and visible minority women. In: UHNWHP, Institute for Clinical Evaluation Sciences and the Centre for Research in Women’s Health (Consortium), Women’s Health Status Report. Toronto, ON: Ontario Ministry of Health Women’s Health Council (in press).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Matuk LC. Alcohol use by newcomers. Am J Health Behav 1996;20(2):42–49.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Acevedo M. The role of acculturation in explaining ethnic differences in the prenatal health-risk behaviours, mental health, and parenting beliefs of Mexican American and European American at-risk women. Child Abuse Neglect 1997;24(1):111–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Adlaf EM, Smart RG, Tan SH. Ethnicity and drug use: A critical look. Int J Addictions 1989;24(1):1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Caetano R. Acculturation and drinking patterns among U.S. Hispanics. Br J Addiction 1987;82:789–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cardoso MA, Hamada GS, de Souza JM, Tsugane S, Tokudome S. Dietary patterns in Japanese migrants to southeastern Brazil and their descendants. Am J Epidemiol 1997;7:198–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    DeSantis L. Reproductive health. In: Loue S (Ed.), Handbook of Immigrant Health. New York: Plenum Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kouris-Blazos A, Wahlqvist ML, Trichopoulou A, Polychronopoulos E, Trichopouloulos D. Health and nutritional status of elderly Greek migrants to Melbourne, Australia. Age & Ageing 1996;25:177–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marin G, Peres-Stable EJ, Marin BV. Cigarette smoking among San Francisco Hispanics: The role of acculturation and gender. Am J Public Health 1989;79(2):196–98.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Markides KS, Ray LA, Stroup-Benham CA, Trevino F. Acculturation and alcohol consumption in the Mexican American population of the Southwestern United States: Findings from HHANES 1982–84. Am J Public Health 1990;80:42–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Otero-Sabogal R, Sabogal F, Perez-Stable EJ, Hiatt RA. Dietary practices, alcohol consumption, and smoking behavior: Ethnic, sex, and acculturation differences. J National Cancer Institute Monographs 1995;18:73–82.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rogler LH, Cortes DE, Malgady RG. Acculturation and mental health states among Hispanics: Convergence and new directions for research. American Psychologist 1991;46:585–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zambrana RE, Scrimshaw SCM, Collins N, Dunkel-Schetter C. Prenatal health behaviors and psychosocial risk factors in pregnant women of Mexican origin: The role of acculturation. Am J Public Health 1997;87(6):1022–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Matuk LC. Pap smear screening practices in newcomer women. Women’s Health Issues 1996;6(2):82–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yuan L, Permaul-Woods J, Barnsley J, Cockerill R. Toronto Chinese Health Survey Final Report. Toronto, ON: Department of Family Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, 1998.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Telford L. Why should health promoters be theoretical? Ontario Health Promotion Bulletin 2000;150:1.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Janz NK, Becker MH. The Health Belief Model: A decade later. Health Educ Q 1984;11:1–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rosenstock IM. Historical origins of the Health Belief Model. Heath Education Monographs 1974;2(4):328–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Glantz K, Lewis FM, Rimer BK (Eds.). Health Behavior and Health Education. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1997.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Leventhal H, Keeshan P, Baker MT, Wetter D. Smoking prevention: Towards a process approach. Br J Addiction 1991;86:583–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bandura A. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall, 1977.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ajzen I, Fishbein M. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1980.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC. Stages of Change in the Modification of Problem Behaviors. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1992.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Elder JP, Apodaca X, Parra-Medina D, DeNuncio MLZ. Strategies for health education: Theoretical models. In: Loue S (Ed.), Handbook of Immigrant Health. New York: Plenum Press, 1998;567–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 1999, Immigration Overview. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2000.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Millett PE, Sullivan BF, Schwebel AI, Myers LJ. Black Americans’ and White Americans’ views of the etiology and treatment of mental health problems. Community Mental Health J 1996;32:235–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Edman JL, Kameoka VA. Cultural differences in illness schemas: An analysis of Filipino and American illness attributions. J Cross-Cultural Psychology 1997;28(3):252–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Landrine H, Klonoff EA. The African American Acculturation Scale: Development, reliability, and validity. J Black Psychology 1994;20(2):104–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Canadian Task Force on Mental Health Affecting Immigrants and Refugees. After the Door has Been Opened: Mental Health Issues Affecting Immigrants and Refugees in Canada. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services Canada, 1988.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Statistics Canada. The Daily. 1996 Census: Mother tongue, home language and knowledge of languages. 1997. Available on-line at. www.statscan.ca/daily/english/971202/d971202.htm.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Haitt RA, Pasick RJ, Perez-Stable EJ, McPhee SJ, Engelstad L, Lee M, et al. Pathways to early cancer detection in the multiethnic population of the San Francisco Bay area. Health Educ Q 1996;23(Supplement):S10–S27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Choudry UK. Health promotion among immigrant women from India living in Toronto. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship 1998;30:269–74.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Guruge S, Donner G, Morrison L. The impact of recent changes to the health care system on immigrants and refugees’ health. In: Gustafson D (Ed.), Care and Consequences. Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing, 2000;222–24.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Suarez L. Pap smear and mammogram screening in Mexican-American women: The effects of acculturation. Am J Public Health 1994;84(5):742–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hyman I. Changes in Health Behaviour Following Immigration–An Acculturation Model. NHRDP. Final Report–National Health Post-Doctoral Fellowship: File no. 6606-5529-48, 1997.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vissandjee B, Carignan P, Gravel S, Leduc N. Promotion de la santé en faveur des femmes immigrant au Québec. Revue épidemiologique et santé publique 1998;43:124–33.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Oxman-Martinez J, Abdool SN, Loiselle-Leonard M. Immigration, women and health in Canada. Can J Public Health 2000;91(5):394–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Beiser M, Gill K, Edwards RG. Mental health care in Canada: Is it accessible and equal? Canada’s Mental Health 1993;41(2):2–7.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bird JA, McPhee SJ, Ha NT, Le B, Davis T, Jenkins CN. Opening pathways to cancer screening for Vietnamese-American women: Lay health workers hold a key. Prev Med 1998;27(6):821–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kernohan EEM. Evaluation of a pilot study for breast and cervical cancer screening with Bradford’s minority ethnic women: A community development approach, 1991–1993. Br J Cancer 1996;74 (Suppl.XXIX):S42–S46.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (LCDC). Women’ Health Surveillance: A Plan of Action for Health Canada. Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Centre for Research in Women’s HealthTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of NursingUniversity of TorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations