Advertisement

Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 92, Issue 5, pp 392–395 | Cite as

Descriptive Epidemiology of a Depressive Syndrome in a Western Canadian Community Population

  • Scott B. PattenEmail author
Article

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate cross-sectional associations between depressive episodes and a set of potential biopsychosocial determinants in Calgary, Canada.

Methods: Random digit dialling (RDD) was used to select a sample consisting of 2,542 household residents in Calgary. These subjects were interviewed over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) short form for major depression, and a questionnaire evaluating a variety of biopsychosocial variables.

Results: The prevalence of major depression was associated with biological (family history of major depression, alcohol consumption, street drug use), psychological (ratings of stress, recent life events) and social factors (social support, marital status, income, level of education).

Conclusion: This study confirms that major depression is correlated with a diverse set of potential determinants in community populations, and that the impact of these determinants may differ between different populations. Prospective studies will be needed to further investigate these associations.

Résumé

Objectif: Évaluer les liens transversaux entre les accès dépressifs et un ensemble de déterminants bio-psycho-sociaux possibles à Calgary.

Méthode: Nous avons sélectionné par composition aléatoire un échantillon de 2 542 ménages à Calgary. Les sujets ont été interviewés au téléphone à l’aide de la forme abrégée pour la dépression majeure du Composite International Diagnostic Interview et d’un questionnaire évaluant une gamme de variables bio-psycho-sociales.

Résultats: La prévalence de la dépression majeure était associée à des facteurs biologiques (antécédents familiaux de dépression majeure, consommation d’alcool ou de drogues illicites), psychologiques (perception du stress, récents événements marquants) et sociaux (soutien social, état matrimonial, revenu, scolarité).

Conclusion: L’étude confirme que la dépression majeure est corrélée avec un ensemble diversifié de déterminants dans les populations locales, et que les incidences de ces déterminants peuvent varier d’une population à l’autre. Il faudrait mener des études prospectives pour élucider ces corrélations.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kendler KS, Walters EE, Kessler RC. The prediction of length of major depressive episodes: Results from an epidemiological sample of female twins. Psychol Med 1997;27:107–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kendler KS, Kessler RC, Walters EE, et al. Stressful life events, genetic liability, and onset of an episode of major depression in women. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152(6):833–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bruce ML, Takeuchi DT, Leaf PJ. Poverty and psychiatric status. Longitudinal evidence from the New Haven Epidemiological Catchment Area Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991;48:470–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lynch JW, Kaplan GA, Shema SJ. Cumulative impact of sustained economic hardship on physical, cognitive, psychological, and social functioning. N Engl J Med 1997;337(26):1889–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown GW, Moran PM. Single mothers, poverty and depression. Psychol Med 1997;27:21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blazer DG, Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Swartz MS. The prevalence and distribution of Major Depression in a national community sample: The National Comorbidity Survey. Am J Psychiatry 1994;151:979–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hartge P, Brinton LA, Rosenthal JF, et al. Random digit dialing in selecting a population-based control group. Am J Epidemiol 1984;120(6):825–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Potthoff RF. Telephone sampling in epidemio-logical research: To reap the benefits, avoid the pitfalls. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:967–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kessler RC, Andrews G, Mroczek D, et al. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form (CIDI-SF). Int J Methods in Psychiatric Research 1998;7:171–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wittchen HU. Reliability and validity studies of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI): A critical review. J Psychiat Res 1994;28(1):57–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Robins LN, Wing J, Wittchen HU, et al. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview. An epidemiological instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988;45:1069–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Patten SB. Performance of the CIDI Short Form in Clinical and Community Samples. Chron Dis Can 1997;18:109–12.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Statistics Canada Health Statistics Division. National Population Health Survey Overview 1994–95. 82-587. Ottawa, Minister of Industry, 1995.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Andreasen NC, Endicott J, Spitzer RL, Winokur G. The family history method using diagnostic criteria. Reliability and validity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34(10):1229–35.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Roy A. Five risk factors for depression. Br J Psychiatry 1987;150:536–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Watson EK, Firman DW, Heywood A, et al. Conducting regional health surveys using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing method. Austr J Public Health 1995;19:508–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kalsbeek W, Frerichs R. CSAMPLE. Analyzing Data from Complex Survey Samples. Epi Info Manual. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997;157–84.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stata. Version 7. Texas: Stata Corporation, 2001.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beaudet MP. Depression. Health Rep 1996;7(4):11–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Offord DR, Boyle MH, Campbell D, et al. One year prevalence of psychiatric disorder in Ontarians 15 to 64 years of age. Can J Psychiatry 1996;41:559–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    De Marco RR. The epidemiology of major depression: Implications of occurrence, recurrence, and stress in a Canadian community sample. Can J Psychiatry 2000;45:67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fenig S, Levav I, Kohn R, Yelin N. Telephone vs face-to-face interviewing in a community psychiatric survey. Am J Public Health 1993;83:896–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Global Burden of Disease and Injury. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health, 1996.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Population Health InvestigatorAlberta Heritage Foundation for Medical ResearchCanada
  2. 2.Departments of Community Health Sciences and Psychiatry, Faculty of MedicineThe University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations