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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 102, Issue 3, pp 210–213 | Cite as

L’éthique humanitaire et la notion de justice

  • Silvia Quadrelli
  • Henri Colt
  • Camilo GarciaEmail author
Éthique et santé Publique
  • 1 Downloads

Résumé

Les fondements de l’Action Humanitaire, au-delà de la norme légale qui est essentielle puisqu’elle entraîne des obligations inaliénables pour tous les États qui y souscrivent, sont empreints par des concepts philosophiques et politiques ancrés dans une éthique de la justice.

Le contractualisme Rawlsien postule que les actions humanitaires sont basées sur l’idée qu’aider est une option noble et désirable, mais qui reste une option et pas une obligation.

Peter Singer et Thomas Pogge nuancent la compréhension du devoir d’assistance. Ne pas aider serait mal et intrinsèquement équivalent à tuer. Aider n’est pas un acte caritatif digne d’éloges mais une obligation morale.

Les impératifs financiers des associations, la complexité croissante des activités et le développement d’un important volet de communication entraine une professionnalisation de la médicine humanitaire. Une vision moderne de l’action humanitaire repose sur une meilleure compréhension de la justice, la solidarité et l’action globale. Pour nous donc, s’impose un ferme rapprochement éthique de l’action humanitaire avec des implications politiques claires.

Mots clés

éthique humanitaire justice ONG 

Abstract

The bases of humanitarian assistance, beyond a legal norm–which appears to be essential given the inalienable obligations that result for all participating bodies–are influenced by philosophical and political conceptualizations framed in an ethics of justice.

Actors in the humanitarian field who adhere to the Rawlsian social contract model their actions based on a philosophy that assistance is a noble and desirable option that remains in the hands of those who offer aid, and who can freely choose to not offer such assistance.

Peter Singer and Thomas Pogge propose nuances to the understanding of the duty of assistance. Not assisting would be bad, basically tantamount to killing. Assistance is no longer a caring act deserving of praise, but rather a moral obligation.

The financial imperatives of associations, the growing complexity of activities and the development of an important element of communication lead to a professionalization of humanitarian medicine. A modern vision of humanitarian assistance requires an understanding of justice and solidarity and global outreach. We believe that ethics need to be embedded firmly in humanitarian actions that have clear political implications.

Key words

Humanitarian ethics justice NGOs 

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas Alfredo LanariUniversidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentine
  2. 2.University of California Irvine Medical CenterIrvineUSA
  3. 3.World Bronchology FoundationUSA
  4. 4.Département de Médecine Nucléaire, Institut Jules BordetUniversité Libre de Bruxelles (ULB)BrusselsBelgium

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