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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 102, Issue 3, pp 164–168 | Cite as

Canadians Continue to Consume Too Much Sodium and Not Enough Potassium

  • Corina M. TanaseEmail author
  • Kristine G. Koski
  • Patrick J. Laffey
  • Marcia J. Cooper
  • Kevin A. Cockell
Quantitative Research
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

Excessive sodium (Na) intakes and insufficient potassium (K) intakes are known contributors to hypertension. In July 2010, the Health Canada-led multi-stakeholder Sodium Working Group issued recommendations to lower Na intakes of Canadians. Baseline data and ongoing monitoring are needed.

Methods

Na and K content based on recently analyzed food composite samples from the Canadian marketplace were matched with over 35,000 dietary recalls from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS 2.2). The distributions of usual intakes for Na and K were constructed using SIDE software and estimates by age and sex for the 5th, 10th, 25th, mean, median, 75th, 90th and 95th percentiles were determined.

Results

Based on recent analyses of Canadian foods, the majority of Canadians exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for Na for their age and sex group, including infants, children, adolescents and adults. In sharp contrast, few had Adequate Intakes (AI) of K.

Conclusion

Canadians of all ages need to decrease Na intakes below the UL. At the same time, increased consumption of dairy products, fruits and vegetables must be promoted to increase K intakes to current recommendations. Both dietary interventions are required to help lower hypertension in the Canadian population. We provide the first report based on direct analyses of Canadian foods, confirming the high Na and low K intakes of the Canadian population. With its annual sampling program of foods commonly consumed in Canada, the Total Diet Study provides an important sentinel system for monitoring these dietary risk factors for hypertension.

Key words

Sodium potassium diet food analysis nutritional requirements population groups 

Résumé

Objectifs

Des apports excessifs en sodium (Na) et insuffisants en potassium (K) sont deux facteurs contribuant à l’hypertension. En juillet 2010, le Groupe de travail multi-intervenants sur le sodium, dirigé par Santé Canada, a publié la Stratégie de réduction du sodium pour le Canada. Des données de base et un suivi permanent sont requis.

Méthode

Les contenus en Na et en K basés sur des analyses récentes d’échantillons composites d’aliments vendus sur le marché canadien ont été appariés avec plus de 35 000 « rappels alimentaires » [feuilles de rappels des aliments ingérés] de l’Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes, cycle 2.2, volet nutrition (ESCC 2.2). Les distributions des apports typiques en Na et en K ont été établies en utilisant le logiciel SIDE, et les estimations par âge et par sexe pour les 5e, 10e, 25e, 75e, 90e et 95e centiles, ainsi que pour la moyenne et la médiane, ont été déterminées.

Résultats

D’après des analyses récentes d’aliments canadiens, les apports en Na de la majorité des Canadiens (nourrissons, enfants, adolescents et adultes) excèdent l’apport maximal tolérable (AMT) pour leur groupe d’âge et leur sexe. Par contre, peu de Canadiens ont des apports suffisants (AS) en K.

Conclusion

Les Canadiens de tous les âges ont besoin de réduire leurs apports en Na en dessous de l’AMT. Parallèlement, la consommation accrue de produits laitiers, de fruits et de légumes doit être promue afin d’augmenter les apports en K jusqu’aux niveaux recommandés. Ces deux interventions sont requises afin de réduire l’hypertension au Canada. Notre rapport est le premier à être fondé directement sur des analyses d’aliments canadiens; il confirme les apports excessifs en Na et insuffisants en K des Canadiens. Grâce à son programme d’échantillonnage annuel des aliments habituellement consommés au Canada, l’étude de la diète totale fournit un système sentinelle important pour le suivi de ces facteurs de risque d’hypertension d’origine alimentaire.

Mots clés

sodium potassium régime alimentaire analyse d’aliment besoins nutritifs groupes de population 

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Corina M. Tanase
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Kristine G. Koski
    • 1
  • Patrick J. Laffey
    • 2
  • Marcia J. Cooper
    • 3
  • Kevin A. Cockell
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Dietetics and Human NutritionMcGill UniversityCanada
  2. 2.Biostatistics and Computer Applications Division, Bureau of Food Policy and Science Integration, Food DirectorateHealth Products and Food Branch, Health CanadaOttawaCanada
  3. 3.Nutrition Research Division, Food DirectorateHealth Products and Food Branch, Health CanadaCanada

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