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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 102, Issue 1, pp 35–41 | Cite as

The Population Attributable Fraction of Asthma Among Canadian Children

  • Elinor SimonsEmail author
  • Teresa To
  • Sharon Dell
Systematic Review
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

Objective

We calculated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of Canadian childhood asthma due to modifiable environmental exposures, in order to estimate their relative contributions to asthma development based on the current literature.

Methods

We conducted a systematic review to determine Canadian childhood asthma incidence, Canadian prevalence of exposure to airborne pollutants and indoor allergens, and international estimates of the risk of developing physician-diagnosed asthma (PDA) associated with each exposure. Combining risk estimates by meta-analysis where possible, PAF was calculated by the formula: \(\frac{{PAF = Attributable\,risk\,*\,Exposure\,prevalence\,*\,100\% }}{{Asthma\,incidence}}\)

Synthesis

Age-specific Canadian childhood asthma incidence ranged from 2.8%-6.9%. Canadian exposure prevalences were: PM10 16%, PM2.5 7.1%, NO2 25%, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) 9.0%, cat 22%, dog 12%, mouse 17%, cockroach 9.8%, dust mite 30%, moisture 14% and mould 33%. Relative risk estimates of PDA were: PM10 1.64, PM2.5 1.44, NO2 1.29, ETS 1.40, mouse 1.23, cockroach 1.96, and spanned 1.00 for cat, dog, dust mites, moisture and mould. PAF estimates for incident asthma among preschool children were: PM10 11%, PM2.5 1.6%, NO2 4.0%, ETS 2.9%, mouse 6.5% and cockroach 13%.

Conclusions

This systematic review suggests contributions to childhood asthma development from exposure to particulates, NO2, ETS, mouse and cockroach. The associations appeared to be more complex for cat, dog and dust mite allergens and more variable for mould and moisture. Additional prospective, population-based studies of childhood asthma development with objectively-measured exposures are needed to further quantify these associations.

Key words

Asthma children population attributable fraction environmental exposure 

Résumé

Objectifs

Nous avons calculé la fraction attribuable dans la population (FAP) du risque d’asthme chez les enfants au Canada dû aux expositions environnementales modifiables, afin d’estimer la contribution relative de ces expositions au développement de l’asthme, d’après les publications actuelles.

Méthode

Nous avons effectué un examen systématique pour déterminer l’incidence de l’asthme chez les enfants au Canada, la prévalence de l’exposition aux polluants atmosphériques et aux allergènes intérieurs au Canada et les estimations internationales du risque de contracter l’asthme diagnostiqué par un médecin (ADM) associées à chaque forme d’exposition. En combinant les estimations du risque par méta-analyse là où il était possible de le faire, nous avons calculé la FAP selon la formule suivante:
$$\frac{{FAP = Risque\,attribuable*\Pr \'e valence\,de\,l\exp osition*100\% }}{<Subscript>cidence\,de\,lasthme</Subscript>}$$

Synthèse

L’incidence par âge de l’asthme chez les enfants au Canada se situait entre 2,8 et 6,9 %. Les taux de prévalence des expositions au Canada étaient les suivants: PM10 16 %; PM2.5 7,1 %; NO2 25 %; fumée secondaire du tabac (FST) 9 %; chats 22 %; chiens 12 %; souris 17 %; blattes 9,8 %; acariens 30 %; humidité 14 %; et moisissures 33 %. Les estimations du risque relatif d’ADM étaient les suivantes: PM10 1,64; PM2.5 1,44; NO2 1,29; FST 1,40; souris 1,23; blattes 1,96; avec une plage de 1,00 pour les chats, les chiens, les acariens, l’humidité et les moisissures. Les estimations de la FAP relativement aux nouveaux cas d’asthme chez les enfants d’âge préscolaire étaient les suivantes: PM10 11 %; PM2.5 1,6 %; NO2 4 %; FST 2,9 %, souris 6,5 %; et blattes 13 %.

Conclusion

Selon cet examen systématique, l’exposition aux matières particulaires, au dioxyde d’azote, à la FST, aux souris et aux blattes contribue au développement de l’asthme chez les enfants. Les associations observées semblent plus complexes pour ce qui est des allergènes des chats, des chiens et des acariens et plus variables en ce qui a trait aux moisissures et à l’humidité. Il faudrait mener d’autres études prospectives en population sur le développement de l’asthme chez les enfants, avec des expositions objectivement mesurées, pour mieux chiffrer ces associations.

Mots clés

asthme enfant fraction attribuable dans la population exposition environnementale 

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Hospital for Sick Children Research InstituteChild Health Evaluative SciencesTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Respiratory MedicineThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada

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