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Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio

, Volume 97, Issue 3, pp 153–162 | Cite as

Frozen Sonic Flow Method Applied to Arc-Heated Facilities for Planetary Re-Entry Simulation

  • A. Esposito
  • F. Aponte
Article

Abstract

The most important parameter in low-density arc-heated flows for atmosphere entry simulations is the centerline total enthalpy Hcl which is strictly related to the average total enthalpy Hne (bulk enthalpy at nozzle exit). In this paper the “sonic flow method” widely used for Hcl calculation in mono-atomic and diatomic molecules gas mixtures, has been extended to polyatomic molecules gas mixtures. By means of a reduced-scale arc-jet facility and using Nitrogen N2 as hot feeding gas, three mixtures were investigated by adding cold gases like O2, CO2 and CH4 through a mixer just before the nozzle. Using bulk enthalpies ranging between 5 and 30 [M J/kg] the calculated enthalpy ratios were Hcl/Hne = 1.38 for N2 - O2 mixture, Hcl/Hne = 1.18 for N2 - CO2 mixture and Hcl/Hne = 1.85 for N2 - CH4 mixture.

Nomenclature

A*

cross-sectional area of nozzle throat m2

ci

mass fraction of the ith species

C

water specific heat J/kg

F

gamma function

H

total enthalpy MJ/kg

HT

heat content at temperature T MJ/kg

mg

gas mass flow rate g/s

mw

water mass flow rate g/s

m

molecular mass un-dissociated gas kg/kmol

p

pressure Pa

P

electrical power kW

R0

universal gas constant J/(kmolK)

tf

fluid-dynamic time s

ts

simulation time s

T

temperature K

Xi

molar fraction of the ith species

Z

compressibility factor

ΔT

temperature difference K

ΔHf,T

heat of formation at temperature T MJ/kg

α

total mass fraction of dissociated species

γ

specific heat ratio

Subscripts

ah

arc-heater

cl

centerline

ne

nozzle exit

i

impact

mc

mixing chamber

n

nozzle

t

total (at beginning of expansion)

ts

test section

w

water

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Copyright information

© AIDAA Associazione Italiana di Aeronautica e Astronautica 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale“Federico II” - Università di NapoliItaly

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