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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 98, Issue 3, pp 194–197 | Cite as

Outcomes from a Canadian Public Health Prenatal Screening Program for Hepatitis B

1997–2004
  • Sabrina S. Plitt
  • Ali M. Somily
  • Ameeta E. Singh
Article

Abstract

Background

Without appropriate prophylaxis, the rate of vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be as high as 95%. Alberta’s provincial prenatal program screens all pregnant women for HBV, and provides prophylaxis to infants born to HBV-infected women. Canadian data on the outcomes of such programs are limited.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective review of data from pregnant Albertan women who were Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) positive from 1997–2004. We describe the frequency of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and vaccine administration, follow-up serology and pregnancy outcomes.

Results

In total, 1,485 HBsAg-positive pregnant women were identified; an average of 186 women annually (range: 125–216). Of the 980 infants eligible to have completed prophylaxis and serological follow-up, 82.0% were appropriately immunized and serologically tested, 11.3% had complete immunization but no serology testing and 6.6% were incompletely immunized. Of infants with complete immunization and follow-up, 3.7% failed to mount an immune response and 2.1% were infected.

Conclusion

A high proportion of infants born to carrier mothers are receiving appropriate post-natal prophylaxis in Alberta. Future research should examine maternal factors that may increase the vertical transmission of HBV.

MeSH terms

Hepatitis B virus immunization serologic tests prenatal care vertical transmission 

Résumé

Contexte

Sans prophylaxie appropriée, le taux de transmission verticale du virus de l’hépatite B (VHB) peut atteindre 95 %. Dans le cadre du programme prénatal provincial de l’Alberta, toutes les femmes enceintes sont testées pour le VHB, et la prophylaxie est offerte aux nourrissons de femmes infectées par le virus. Les données canadiennes sur les résultats de tels programmes sont limitées.

Méthode

Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective auprès des femmes enceintes de l’Alberta qui étaient porteuses de l’antigène de surface de l’hépatite B (AgHBs) entre 1997 et 2004. Nous avons décrit la fréquence de l’administration de l’immunoglobuline anti-hépatite B (HBIg) et du vaccin contre le VHB, les résultats des tests sérologiques et les résultats de grossesse.

Résultats

Sur l’ensemble des femmes enceintes testées, 1 485 porteuses de l’AgHBS ont été identifiées, soit en moyenne 186 femmes par année (125 à 216). Des 980 nourrissons admissibles à la prophylaxie complète et au suivi sérologique, 82 % avaient reçu tous les vaccins ainsi que les tests sérologiques, 11,3 % avaient reçu les vaccins mais aucun test sérologique, et 6,6 % n’avaient pas été complètement immunisés. Sur les nourrissons immunisés et ayant fait l’objet d’un suivi sérologique, 3,7 % n’avaient pas manifesté de réponse immunitaire, et 2,1 % étaient infectés.

Conclusion

En Alberta, une proportion élevée de nourrissons de mères infectées par le VHB reçoit la prophylaxie postnatale appropriée. D’autres études sont nécessaires pour déterminer les facteurs maternels qui augmentent le risque de transmission du VHB de la mère à l’enfant.

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabrina S. Plitt
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ali M. Somily
    • 3
  • Ameeta E. Singh
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre for Infectious Disease Control and PreventionPublic Health Agency of CanadaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Provincial Health Office, Alberta Health and WellnessUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.College of Medicine & KKUHKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Alberta Health and WellnessEdmontonCanada

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