Advertisement

Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 94, Issue 5, pp 332–337 | Cite as

Predicting Change in Physical Activity, Dietary Restraint, and Physique Anxiety in Adolescent Girls

Examining Covariance in Physical Self-perceptions
  • Peter Crocker
  • Catherine Sabiston
  • Shannon Forrestor
  • Nanette Kowalski
  • Kent Kowalski
  • Meghan McDonough
Article

Abstract

Objectives

To examine: i) the mean changes in adolescent females’ body mass index (BMI), global self-esteem, physical self-perceptions, social physique anxiety, physical activity, and dietary restraint; ii) the stability of measuring self-perceptions, BMI, selfesteem, physique anxiety, activity, and dietary restraint; and iii) the relationships among changes in these variables over 12 months.

Methods

631 female adolescents (15–16 years old) involved in a two-year study of selfreport measures completed validated questionnaires in high school classroom settings.

Results

There were small but significant group increases in BMI and social physique anxiety and significant decreases in sport, conditioning, and strength physical selfperceptions and physical activity. Stability analysis indicates moderate to strong stability for all variables. Change analyses indicated that BMI, due to its high stability, is a poor predictor of change in all variables. Stronger significant correlations were noted between change in body appearance self-perceptions and change in social physique anxiety (r=-0.54) and dietary restraint (r=-0.27). There was also a significant relationship between change in physical activity and the physical self-perceptions, although conditioning was the only significant (p<0.05) predictor of change in physical activity (ß=0.340).

Interpretation

Physical self-perceptions are a stronger predictor of change in physical activity, dietary restraint, and social physique anxiety compared to BMI. This demonstrates the importance of physical self-perceptions when investigating health-related behaviours associated with dieting and physical activity. The decline in physical activity and increase in BMI is an ongoing concern, as is the link between body appearance self-perceptions and dietary restraint and social physique anxiety.

Résumé

Objectifs

Examiner i) les changements moyens de l’indice de masse corporelle (IMC), de l’estime de soi générale, de l’autoperception du corps, de l’angoisse sociale liée au physique, de l’activité physique et des restrictions alimentaires chez les adolescentes; ii) la stabilité des mesures de l’autoperception, de l’IMC, de l’estime de soi, de l’angoisse liée au physique, de l’activité et des restrictions alimentaires; et iii) les liens entre l’évolution de ces variables sur 12 mois.

Méthode

Des questionnaires validés ont été remplis en classe à l’école secondaire par 631 adolescentes (de 15 et 16 ans) participant à une étude de deux ans sur les mesures d’autodéclaration.

Résultats

Nous avons constaté des augmentations collectives mineures, mais significatives, de l’IMC et de l’angoisse sociale liée au physique, ainsi que des baisses significatives du sport, de la forme physique, de l’autoperception de la force et de l’activité physique. Selon une analyse de stabilité, toutes les variables présentent une stabilité moyenne à élevée. Selon des analyses du changement, l’IMC, en raison de sa stabilité élevée, est un piètre prédicteur de changement, quelle que soit la variable. Nous avons noté des corrélations significatives plus importantes entre le changement dans l’autoperception de l’apparence physique et le changement dans l’angoisse sociale liée au physique (r=-0,54) et les restrictions alimentaires (r=-0,27). Il existait aussi un lien significatif entre le changement dans l’activité physique et l’autoperception du corps, bien que la forme physique soit la seule variable prédictive significative (p<0,05) du changement dans l’activité physique (ß=0,340).

Interprétation

L’autoperception du corps est un prédicteur plus solide que l’IMC pour ce qui est des changements dans l’activité physique, les restrictions alimentaires et l’angoisse sociale liée au physique, ce qui en fait un outil important pour l’étude des comportements sanitaires associés aux régimes et à l’activité physique. La baisse de l’activité physique et la hausse de l’IMC sont des préoccupations de longue date, tout comme le lien entre l’autoperception de l’apparence physique et les restrictions alimentaires et l’angoisse sociale liée au physique.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Crocker PRE, Kowalski N, Kowalski KC, Chad K, Humbert L, Forrester S. Smoking behaviour and dietary restraint in young adolescent women: The role of physical self-perceptions. Can J Public Health 2001;92:428–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    French SA, Perry CL, Leon GR, Fulkerson, JA. Weight concerns, dieting behavior, and smoking initiation among adolescents: A prospective study. Am J Public Health 1994;84:1818–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harter S. The Construction of the Self: A Developmental Perspective. New York, NY: Guilford, 1999.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marsh H. Age and gender effects in physical selfconcepts for adolescent elite athletes and nonathletes: A multicohort-multioccasion design. J Sport Exerc Psych 1998;20:237–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fox K. The physical self and processes in selfesteem development. In: Fox K (Ed.), The Physical Self: From Motivation to Well-being. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1997;111–39.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Biddle SJ, Page A, Ashford B, Jenning D. Assessment of children’s physical self-perceptions. Int J Adolesc 1993;4:93–109.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eklund R, Whitehead J, Welk G. Validity of the children and youth physical self-perception profile: A confirmatory factor analysis. Res Q Exerc Sport 1997;68:240–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hagger M, Ashford B, Stambulova N. Russian and British children’s physical self-perceptions and physical activity participation. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1998;10:137–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Killen J, Hayward C, Litt I, Hammer L, Wilson D, Miner B, et al. Is puberty a risk factor for eating disorders? AJDC 1996;146:323–25.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Welk G, Corbin C, Lewis L. Physical selfperceptions of high school athletes. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1995;7:152–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Whitehead J. A study of children’s physical self perceptions using an adapted physical self perception profile questionnaire. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1995;7:132–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Crocker PRE, Eklund E, Kowalski K. Children’s physical activity and physical self-perceptions. J Sport Sci 2000;18:383–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Davis C. Body image, exercise, and eating behaviours. In: Fox KR (Ed.), The Physical Self: From Motivation to Well-being. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1997;143–74.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Page A, Fox K. Adolescent weight management and the physical self. In Fox K (Ed.), The Physical Self: From Motivation to Well-being. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1997;229–56.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fox K, Corbin C. The physical self-perception profile: Development and preliminary validation. J Sport Exerc Psych 1989;11:408–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Crawford S, Eklund, RC. Social physique anxiety, reasons for exercise, and attitudes toward exercise settings. J Sport and Exerc Psych 1994;16:70–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leary M. Self-presentational processes in exercise and sport. J Sport Exerc Psych1992;14:339–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McAuley E, Burman G. The Social Physique Anxiety Scale: Construct validity in adolescent females. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1993;25:1049–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kowalski R, Leary M. The Social Psychology of Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Interfaces of Social and Clinical Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1995.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krane V, Stiles-Shipley J, Waldron J, Michalenok J. Relationship among body satisfaction, social physique anxiety, and eating behaviours in female athletes and exercisers. J Sport Behav 2001;24:247–64.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schlenker BR, Leary M. Social anxiety and selfpresentation: A conceptualization and model. Psych Bullet 1982;92:641–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hart EA, Leary MR, Rejeski, WJ. The measurement of social physique anxiety. J Sport Exerc Psych 1989;11:94–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Armstrong N, McManus A. Children’s fitness and physical activity: A challenge for physical education. Br J Phys Act 1994;25:9–11.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pate R, Long B, Heath G. Descriptive epidemiology of physical activity in adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1994;6:434–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Taylor W, Sallis J. Determinants of physical activity in children. In: Pavlou AP (Eds.), Nutrition and Fitness: Metabolic and Behavioural Aspects in Health and Disease. Basel: Karger, 1997;159–67.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bouchard C, Shephard R, Stephens T. Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health. Champaign: Human Kinetics, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Crocker PRE, Snyder J, Kowalski K, Hoar S. Don’t let me be fat or physically incompetent! The relationship between physical self-concept and social physique anxiety in Canadian high performance female adolescent athletes. Avante 2000;6:1–8.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kowalski N, Crocker PRE, Kowalski K. Physical self and physical activity relationships in college women: Does social physique anxiety moderate effects? Res Q Exerc Sport 2001;72:55–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Marsh H, Richards GE, Johnson S, Roche L, Tremayne P. Physical Self-Description Questionnaire: Psychometric properties and a multitrait-multimethod analysis of relations to existing instruments. J Sport Exerc Psych 1994;16:270–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fox K, Pate A, Armstrong N, Kirby B. Dietary restraint and self-perceptions in early adolescence. Person Individ Diff 1994;17:87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kowalski KC, Crocker PRE, Kowalski N. Convergent validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1997;9:342–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Martin K, Rejeski WJ, Leary M, McAuley E, Bane S. Is the Social Physique Anxiety Scale really multidimensional? Conceptual and statistical arguments for a unidimensional model. J Sport Exerc Psych 1997;19:359–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Harter S. Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Denver, CO: University of Denver, 1988.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Childress A, Brewerton T, Hodges E, Jarrell M. The kids’ eating disorder survey (KEDS): A study of middle school students. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1993;32:843–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tomeo CA, Field AE, Berkey CS, Colditz GA, Frazier, AL. Weight concerns, weight control behaviours, and smoking initiation. Pediatrics 1999;104:918–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    van Strein T, Frijters J, Bergers G, Defares P. The Dutch Eating Beahviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behavior. Int J Eat Disord 1986;5:295–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schutz R. Analysing change. In: Safrit MJ, Wood TM (Eds.), Measurement Concepts in Physical Education and Exercise Science. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1989;207–28.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sallis J, Alcarez J, McKenzie T, Hovell M. Predictors of change in children’s physical activity over 20 months: Variations by gender and level of adiposity. Am J Prev Med 1999;16:222–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tremblay MS, Willms J. Secular trends in the body mass of Canadian children. CMAJ 2000;163:1429–35.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gottman, JM. Analysis of Change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cash T, Hicks K. Being fat versus thinking fat: Relationships with body image, eating behaviours, and well-being. Cogn Ther Res 1990;14:327–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Biddle S, Sallis J, Cavill N. Young and Active? Young People and Health-enhancing Physical Activity: Evidence and Implications. London: Health Education Authority, 1998.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Crocker
    • 1
  • Catherine Sabiston
    • 1
  • Shannon Forrestor
    • 2
  • Nanette Kowalski
    • 2
  • Kent Kowalski
    • 2
  • Meghan McDonough
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Human KineticsUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.College of KinesiologyUniversity of SaskatchewanCanada

Personalised recommendations