Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 115–120 | Cite as

Reduction mechanism of chromite spinel with carbon

  • A. B. Hazar-Yoruç
Technical Paper


Ferrochromium produced by smelting chromite ores is an important alloying component in the steel industry. Ore, coke and fluxes are mixed and reacted in an arc furnace for a smelting process of ferrochromium. In addition to this process, pre-reduction of chromite ore with carbon is an important industrial process. In all these processes, the mechanism and kinetics of reduction of chromite with carbon play an important role. In this study, the reduction of Turkish chromite ore with carbon was investigated. Chromite and carbon were ground to three different particle size groups. Chromite was mixed with carbon in stoichiometric and excess ratios. The samples were reduced under argon atmosphere at temperatures between 1,200° and 1,350°C The formed phases and alloy compositions of reduced chromite samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDAX and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Experimental results showed that the degree of reduction and the reduction rate increased with increasing temperature and decreasing particle size. The highest degree of reduction, 61.4%, was obtained at 1,350°C. The reduction took place in three stages: Stage 1: transformation of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and formation of metallic nuclei, Stage 2: formation of metallic crust around the particles and Stage 3: growth of the metallic crust and coalescence of the metallic phase.

Key words

Chromium ore Coke Carbothermic reduction Ferrochromium Reduction mechanism 


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Copyright information

© The Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. B. Hazar-Yoruç
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringYildiz Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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