, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 73–80 | Cite as

The growth endocrine axis and inflammatory responses after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  • Themistoklis FlorasEmail author
  • Anastassios Philippou
  • Dimitrios Bardakostas
  • Dimitrios Mantas
  • Michael Koutsilieris
Research paper


OBJECTIVE: It is well known that conventional surgery leads to detrimental immune and catabolic responses, thus there is growing interest in the effect of minimally invasive techniques on postoperative endocrine and immune function. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) axis and acute phase (interleukin-6, IL-6, and C-reactive protein, CRP) responses in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. DESIGN: Twenty-nine patients (16 women, 13 men; age: 58±8 years) with a history of uncomplicated symptomatic cholelithiasis participated in the study. Blood samples were collected prior to and at 24 hrs and 48 hrs after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Serum concentrations of GH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IL-6 were determined by standard sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while CRP was measured by nephelometry. ANOVA with repeated measures and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to evaluate changes in serum measurements. RESULTS: The laparoscopic cholecystectomy resulted in a significant postoperative increase in circulating levels of IL-6 (p=0.031), which is the main cytokine responsible for inducing the acute inflammatory response, and of the acute phase protein CRP (p=0.005). A significant increase in GH levels at 24 hrs (p=0.034) and decrease of IGF-1 on both postoperative days were also found (p=0.045, 0.044), while no changes were documented in IGFBP-3 levels. Significant correlations were revealed between postoperative levels of the acute phase proteins and growth axis hormones (p<0.05 − 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that laparoscopic cholecystectomy induces acute phase endocrine and immune responses. These changes may represent a state of systemic inflammation and GH resistance, compatible with possible cytokine-induced anti-anabolic or catabolic effects even after this minimally invasive cholecystectomy.

Key words

Acute phase response Growth hormone Inflammation Insulin-like growth factor-1 Interleukin-6 Laparoscopy 


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Copyright information

© Hellenic Endocrine Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Themistoklis Floras
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anastassios Philippou
    • 2
  • Dimitrios Bardakostas
    • 1
  • Dimitrios Mantas
    • 1
  • Michael Koutsilieris
    • 2
  1. 1.2nd Propaedeutic Department of Surgery, Laiko General Hospital, Medical SchoolNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensGoudi-AthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Experimental Physiology, Medical SchoolNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece

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