Interceram - International Ceramic Review

, Volume 66, Issue 7, pp 47–52 | Cite as

Substitution of Bentonite Aggregates for Pumice in Lightweight Concretes

  • A. I. M. IsmailEmail author
  • E. R. Souaya
  • M. Fathy
  • A. Abd El-Hakeem
Special Technologies


Bentonite aggregates were pelletized in different grain sizes and the green pellets were then dried for 48 hours and fired in a rotary kiln for one hour at 1150°C with a heating rate of 20 K/min. During firing, the organic compounds in the clay burn off, forcing the pellets to expand and become honeycombed as the outside surface of each granule melts and is sintered. The resulting pellets were lightweight, porous and had high crush resistance. We examined the possibility of using bentonite in different grain sizes as a replacement for pumice in lightweight concretes. Both pumice and bentonitic materials were investigated for their chemical and mineralogical composition (using XRF, XRD, SEM and EDX). Their physico-mechanical properties in concrete pastes, including compressive strength, were evaluated. Phase composition was also determined by XRD, SEM and EDX. The compressive strength and particle and bulk density results showed that these lightweight concretes were affected by the type, shape and percentage of aggregates, the cement paste characteristics, and the interfacial zone between the cement and aggregates. Calcium silicate-hydrate (CSH) and calcium aluminate-hydrate (CAH) minerals were responsible for the strength of the concrete.


bentonite clay minerals pumice aggregates lightweight concrete interfacial zone mechanical properties 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Ismail, A.I.M., Sadek-Ghabrial, D.: Acidic rocks as aggregates in Concrete: Engineering properties, microstructures and petrologic characteristics. Geotech. Geol. Eng. 27 (2009) 519–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Ismail A.I.M., Elmaghraby M. S., Mekky H. S.: Engineering properties, microstructure and strength development of lightweight concrete containing pumice aggregates. Geotech. Geol. Eng. 31 (2013) 1465–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Ismail A.I.M., Darwish H.: Engineering behaviour of waste glass as aggregates in concrete containing sand and gravels. Interceram 63 (2014) [1–2] 45–48Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Ismail, A.I.M., Mekky, H.S., Elmaghraby, M.S: Assessment and utilization of some Egyptian clay deposits for producing lightweight concrete. Int. J. Mater. Sci. and Appl. 3 (2014) [3] 79–83Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Ismail A.I.M., Elmaghraby M. S: Effect of Limestone Composition and Microstructure on the Strength of Aggregates and Concretes. Interceram 64 (2015) [1–2] 28–32Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Elmaghraby, M.S., Ismail, A.I.M.: Utilization of some egyptian waste kaolinitic sand as grog for bricks and concrete. Silicon 8 (2016) 299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Ismail, A.I.M, Souaya, E.R., Abd El-Hakeem, A.: Assessment of different shapes and grain sizes of bentonite aggregates in lightweight concretes. Interceram 65 (2016) [3] 96–99Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Mehta, P.K., Monteiro, P.J.M.: Concrete: microstructure, properties and materials. 3rd ed., Vol. 21, McGraw-Hill, New York (2006) 659 ISBN: 0-07-158919-8, DOI: 10.1036/0071462899Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Kristiawan, S.A., Sangadji, S.: Prediction model for shrinkage of lightweight aggregate concrete. Asian J. Civil. Eng. Build. Hous. 5 (2009) [10] 549–558Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Khaloo, A.R., Ahmad, S.H., El-Dash, K.M.: Behavior of confined high-strength lightweight concrete columns. Asian J. Civil. Eng. Build. Hous. 1 (2000) [1] 13–35Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Khaloo, A.R., Sharifian, M.: Experimental investigation of low to high-strength steel fiber reinforced lightweight concrete under pure torsion. Asian J. Civil. Eng. Build. Hous. 6 (2005) [6] 533–547Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Altun, F., Aktas, B.: Investigation of reinforced concrete beams behavior of steel fiber added lightweight concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 38 (2013) 575–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Tuthill, L.H.: Concrete operations in the concrete ship program. ACI J. Proc. 3 (1945) [41] 137–180Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Kluge, R.W., Sparks, M.M., Tuma, E.C.: Lightweight-aggregate concrete. ACI J. Proc. 9 (1949) [45] 625–644Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Jensen, O.M., Lura, P.: Techniques for internal water curing of concrete. Advances in cement and concrete IX, volume changes, cracking and durability. Proceedings of an International Conference, Copper Mountain, CO. (2003) 67–78Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Deganello, G., Liotta, L.F., Longo, A., Martorana, A., Yanev, Y., Zotov, N.: Structure of natural water-containing glasses from Lipari (Italy) and Eastern Rhodopes (Bulgaria). SAXS, WAXS and IR studies, J. Non-Crystall. Sol. 232 (1998) 547–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Kumar, S.: Utilisation of FaL-G bricks and blocks in buildings. Ind. Concrete J. 75 (2001) [7] 463–467Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. I. M. Ismail
    • 1
    Email author
  • E. R. Souaya
    • 2
  • M. Fathy
    • 3
  • A. Abd El-Hakeem
    • 3
  1. 1.Geological Sciences DepartmentNational Research CentreCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Faculty of ScienceAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Central laboratory servicesEgyptian Mineral Resources AuthorityCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations