Advertisement

The Psychological Record

, Volume 61, Issue 3, pp 391–410 | Cite as

On the Formation and Persistence of Implicit Attitudes: New Evidence From the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP)

  • Sean HughesEmail author
  • Dermot Barnes-Holmes
Article

Abstract

Research increasingly supports the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a measure capable of providing a sensitive index of preexisting implicit attitudes and cognitions. The current study constitutes the first attempt to determine if the IRAP is also sensitive to implicit attitudes engineered through either direct relational training or verbal instruction. Following attitude-induction training, participants completed an IRAP in addition to two self-report procedures designed to measure newly formed attitudes. Both implicit and explicit attitudes emerged and persisted in response to both relational training and verbal instruction. Furthermore, the IRAP data indicated significant implicit attitudes when participants both affirmed attitude-consistent and negated attitude-inconsistent relations. The findings are consistent with previous attitude-formation research, but the relational properties of the IRAP raise specific conceptual issues pertaining to the nature of implicit attitudes themselves.

Key words

implicit attitudes attitude formation Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure IRAP IAT attitude change propositional associative 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AMODIO, D. M., & DEVINE, P. G. (2006). Stereotyping and evaluation in implicit race bias: Evidence for independent constructs and unique effects on behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(4), 652–661.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. BANAJI, M. R. (2001). Implicit attitudes can be measured. In H. L. Roediger III, J. S. Nairne, I. Neath, … A. Surprenant (Eds.), The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder (pp. 117–150). Washington, Dc: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  3. BARNES-HOLMES, D., BARNES-HOLMES, Y., POWER, P., HAYDEN, E., MILNE, R., & STEWART, I. (2006). Do you really know what you believe? Developing the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (Irap) as a direct measure of implicit beliefs. The Irish Psychologist, 32, 169–177.Google Scholar
  4. BARNES-HOLMES, D., Waldron, D., BARNES-HOLMES, Y., & STEWART, I. (2009). Testing the validity of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (Irap) and the Implicit Association Test (Iat): Measuring attitudes toward Dublin and country life in Ireland. The Psychological Record, 59, 389–406.Google Scholar
  5. BARNES-HOLMES, D., Murphy, A., BARNES-HOLMES, Y., & STEWART, I. (2010). The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (Irap): Exploring the impact of private versus public contexts and the response latency criterion on pro-white and anti-black stereotyping among white Irish individuals. The Psychological Record, 60, 57–66.Google Scholar
  6. BARNES-HOLMES, D., BARNES-HOLMES, Y., Stewart, I., & BOLES, S. (2010). A sketch of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (Irap) and the relational elaboration and coherence (Rec) model. The Psychological Record, 60, 527–542.Google Scholar
  7. BARNES-HOLMES, D., Murtagh, L., BARNES-HOLMES, Y., & STEWART, I. (2010). Using the Implicit Association Test and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure to measure attitudes towards meat and vegetables in vegetarians and meat-eaters. The Psychological Record, 60, 287–306.Google Scholar
  8. CASTELLI, L., CARRARO, L., GAWRONSKI, B., & GAVA, K. (2010). On the determinants of implicit evaluations: When the present weighs more than the past. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 186–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. CULLEN, C., BARNES-HOLMES, D., BARNES-HOLMES, Y., & STEWART, I. (2009). The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (Irap) and the malleability of ageist attitudes. The Psychological Record, 59, 591–620.Google Scholar
  10. DAWSON, D. L., BARNES-HOLMES, D., Gresswell, D. M., Hart, A. J. P., & GORE, N. J. (2009). Assessing the implicit beliefs of sexual offenders using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure: A first study. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 21, 57–75.Google Scholar
  11. DE HOUWER, J. (2003). The extrinsic affective Simon Task. Experimental Psychology, 50, 77–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. DE HOUWER, J. (2006). Using the Implicit Association Test does not rule out an impact of conscious propositional knowledge on evaluative conditioning. Learning and Motivation, 37, 176–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DE HOUWER, J. (2007). A conceptual and theoretical analysis of evaluative conditioning. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 10, 230–241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. DE HOUWER, J. (in press). Evaluative conditioning: A review of procedure knowledge and mental process theories. In T. R. Schachtman & S. Reilly (Eds.), Applications of learning and conditioning. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. DE HOUWER, J., GAWRONSKI, B., & BARNES-HOLMES, D. (2010). A behavioral-cognitive framework for attitude research. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  16. DEUTSCH, R., GAWRONSKI, B., & STRACK, F. (2006). At the boundaries of automaticity: Negation as reflective operation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 385–405.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. DEUTSCH, R., KORDTS-FREUDINGER, R., GAWRONSKI, B., & STRACK, F. (2009). Fast and fragile: A new look at the automaticity of negation processing. Experimental Psychology, 56(6), 434–446.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. DIJKSTERHUIS, A. (2004). I like myself but I dont know why: Enhancing implicit self-esteem by subliminal evaluative conditioning’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 345–355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. DRAKE, C. E., KELLUM, K. K., WILSON, K. G., LUOMA, J. B., WEINSTEIN, J. H., & ADAMS, C. H. (2010). Examining the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure: Four preliminary studies. The Psychological Record, 60, 81–100.Google Scholar
  20. EGLOFF, B., & SCHMUKLE, S. C. (2002). Predictive validity of an Implicit Association Test for assessing anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1441–1455.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. FAZIO, R. H., Jackson, J. R., Dunton, B. C., & WILLIAMS, C. J. (1995). Variability in automatic activation as an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes: A bona fide pipeline? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1013–1027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. FAZIO, R. H., & OLSON, M. A. (2003). Implicit measures in social cognition research: Their meaning and use. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 297–327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. FRIESE, M., HOFMANN, W., & SCHMITT, M. (2008). When and why do implicit measures predict behaviour? Empirical evidence for the moderating role of opportunity, motivation, and process reliance. European Review of Social Psychology, 19, 285–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. GAWRONSKI, B., & BODENHAUSEN, G. V. (2006). Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 692–731.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. GAWRONSKI, B., DEUTSCH, R., MBIRKOU, S., SEIBT, B., & STRACK, F. (2008). When “just say no” is not enough: Affirmation versus negation training and the reduction of automatic stereotype activation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 370–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. GIBSON, B. (2008). Can evaluative conditioning change attitudes toward mature brands? New evidence from the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 178–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. GRAY, N. S., BROWN, A. S., & MACCULLOCH, M. J. (2005). An implicit test of the associations between children and sex in pedophiles. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 304–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. GREENWALD, A. G., & BANAJI, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. GREENWALD, A. G., MCGHEE, D. E., & SCHWARTZ, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. GREENWALD, A. G., NOSEK, B. A., & BANAJI, M. R. (2003).Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. GREENWALD, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E., & BANAJI, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 17–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. GREGG, A. P., SEIBT, B., & BANAJI, M. R. (2006). Easier done than undone: Asymmetry in the malleability of implicit preferences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 1–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. HAYES, S. C., BARNES-HOLMES, D., & ROCHE, B. (2001). Relational frame theory: A post-Skinnerian account of human language and cognition. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  34. HOFMANN, W., GAWRONSKI, B., GSCHWENDNER, T., LE, H., & SCHMITT, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self report measure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1369–1385.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. HOLLAND, R. W., VERPLANKEN, B., & VAN KNIPPENBERG, A. (2002). On the nature of attitude-behavior relations: The strong guide, the weak follow. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 869–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. HUGHES, S., BARNES-HOLMES, D., & DE HOUWER, J. (2011). The dominance of associative theorizing in implicit attitude research: Propositional and behavioral alternatives. The Psychological Record, 61, 465–498.Google Scholar
  37. KARPINSKI, A., STEINMAN, R. B., & HILTON, J. L. (2005). Attitude importance as a moderator of the relationship between implicit and explicit attitude measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 949–962.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. KROSNICK, J. A., & PETTY, R. E. (1995). Attitude strength: An overview. In R. E. Petty and J. A. Krosnick (Eds.), Attitude strength: Antecedents and consequences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum and Associates.Google Scholar
  39. MCCONNELL, A. R., RYDELL, R. J., STRAIN, L. M., & MACKIE, D. M. (2008). Forming implicit and explicit attitudes toward individuals: Social group association cues. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 792–807.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. MCKENNA, I. M., BARNES-HOLMES, D., BARNES-HOLMES, Y., & STEWART, I. (2007). Testing the fake-ability of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (Irap): The first study. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 7, 253–268.Google Scholar
  41. MITCHELL, C. J., DE HOUWER, J., & LOVIBOND, P. F. (2009). The propositional nature of human associative learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 183–198.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. MITCHELL, C. J., Anderson, N. E., & LOVIBOND, P. F. (2003). Measuring evaluative conditioning using the Implicit Association Test. Learning and Motivation, 34, 203–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. NOSEK, B., & BANAJI, M. R. (2001). The go/no-go association task. Social Cognition, 19, 625–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. NOSEK, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Hansen, J. J., Devos, T., Lindner, N. M., Ranganath, K. A., Smith, C. T., OLSON, K. R., Chugh, D., Greenwald, A. G., & BANAJI, M. R. (2007). Pervasiveness and correlates of implicit attitudes and stereotypes. European Review of Social Psychology, 18, 36–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. NOSEK, B. A. (2007). Implicit-explicit relations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 65–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. OLSON, M. A., & FAZIO, R. H. (2001). Implicit attitude formation through classical conditioning. Psychological Science, 12, 413–417.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. OLSON, M. A., & FAZIO, R. H. (2002). Implicit acquisition and manifestation of classically conditioned attitudes. Social Cognition, 20, 89–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. OLSON, M. A., & FAZIO, R. H. (2006). Reducing automatically activated racial prejudice through implicit evaluative conditioning. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 421–433.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. OLSON, K. R., & DUNHAM, Y. (in press). The development of implicit social cognition. In B. Gawronski & B. K. Payne (Eds.), Handbook of implicit social cognition: Measurement, theory, and applications. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  50. O’TOOLE, C., BARNES-HOLMES, D., & SMYTH, S. (2007). A derived transfer of function and the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 88, 263–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. PAYNE, B. K., Cheng, C. M., Govorun, O., & STEWART, B. (2005). An inkblot for attitudes: Affective misattribution as implicit measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 277–293.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. PETTY, R. E., Tormala, z. L., & RUCKER, D. D. (2004). Resisting persuasion by counterarguing: An attitude strength perspective. In J. T. Jost, M. R. Banaji, … D. A. Prentice (Eds.), Perspectivism in social psychology: The yin and yang of scientific progress (pp. 37–51). Washington, Dc: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. POWER, P. M., BARNES-HOLMES, D., BARNES-HOLMES, Y., & STEWART, I. (2009). The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (Irap) as a measure of implicit relative preferences: A first study. The Psychological Record, 59, 621–640.Google Scholar
  54. PRESTWICH, A., PERUGINI, M., HURLING, B., & RICHETIN, J. (2010). Using the self to change implicit attitudes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 61–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. RANGANATH, K. A., & NOSEK, B. A. (2008). Implicit attitude generalization occurs immediately, explicit attitude generalization takes time. Psychological Science, 19, 249–254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. RANGANATH, K. A., & NOSEK, B. A. (2009). Creating distinct implicit and explicit attitudes with an illusory correlation paradigm. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  57. RODDY, S., STEWART, I., & BARNES-HOLMES, D. (in press). Anti-fat, pro-slim, or both? Using two reaction time based measures to assess implicit attitudes to the slim and overweight. Journal of Health Psychology.Google Scholar
  58. RUDMAN, L. A., PHELAN, J. E., & HEPPEN, J. (2007). Developmental sources of implicit attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(12), 1700–1713.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. RYDELL, R. J., MCCONNELL, A. R., MACKIE, D. M., & STRAIN, L. M. (2006). Of two minds: Forming and changing valence inconsistent implicit and explicit attitudes. Psychological Science, 17, 954–958.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. RYDELL, R. J., & MCCONNELL, A. R. (2006). Understanding implicit and explicit attitude change: A systems of reasoning analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 995–1008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. RYDELL, R. J., & GAWRONSKI, B. (2009). I like you, I like you not: Understanding the formation of context-dependent automatic attitudes. Cognition and Emotion, 23, 1118–1152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. SRIRAM, N., & GREENWALD, A. G. (2009). The Brief Implicit Association Test. Experimental Psychology, 56, 283–294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. STRACK, F., & DEUTSCH, R. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 220–247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. TEACHMAN, B. A., GAPINSKI, K. D., BROWNELL, K. D., RAWLINS, M., & JEYARAM, S. (2003). Demonstrations of implicit anti-fat bias: The impact of providing causal information and evoking empathy. Health Psychology, 22, 68–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. VAHEY, N. A., BARNES-HOLMES, D., BARNES-HOLMES, Y., & STEWART, I. (2009). A first test of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (Irap) as a measure of self-esteem: Irish prisoner groups and university students. The Psychological Record, 59, 371–388.Google Scholar
  66. WALTHER, E., EBERT, I., & MEINERLING, K. (2011). Does cue competition reduce conditioned liking of brands and products? Psychology and Marketing, 28(5), 520–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. WALTHER, E., NAGENGAST, B., & TRASSELLI, C. (2005). Evaluative conditioning in social psychology: Facts and speculations. Cognition and Emotion, 19, 175–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. WHITFIELD, M., & JORDAN, C. H. (2009). Mutual influences of explicit and implicit attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(4), 748–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Behavior Analysis International 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National University of Ireland MaynoothCounty KildareIreland

Personalised recommendations