The Psychological Record

, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp 553–578 | Cite as

Measuring experiential avoidance: A preliminary test of a working model

  • Steven C. Hayes
  • Kirk Strosahl
  • Kelly G. Wilson
  • Richard T. Bissett
  • Jacqueline Pistorello
  • Dosheen Toarmino
  • Melissa A. Polusny
  • Thane A. Dykstra
  • Sonja V. Batten
  • John Bergan
  • Sherry H. Stewart
  • Michael J. Zvolensky
  • Georg H. Eifert
  • Frank W. Bond
  • John P. Forsyth
  • Maria Karekla
  • Susan M. McCurry


The present study describes the development of a short, general measure of experiential avoidance, based on a specific theoretical approach to this process. A theoretically driven iterative exploratory analysis using structural equation modeling on data from a clinical sample yielded a single factor comprising 9 items. A fully confirmatory factor analysis upheld this same 9-item factor in an independent clinical sample. The operational characteristics of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ) were then examined in 8 additional samples. All totaled, over 2,400 participants were studied. As expected, higher levels of experiential avoidance were associated with higher levels of general psychopathology, depression, anxiety, a variety of specific fears, trauma, and a lower quality of life. The AAQ related to more specific measures of avoidant coping and to self-deceptive positivity, but the relation to psychopathology could not be fully accounted for by these alternative measures. The data provide some initial support for the model of experiential avoidance based on Relational Frame Theory that is incorporated into Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and provides researchers with a preliminary measure for use in population-based studies on experiential avoidance.


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Copyright information

© Association of Behavior Analysis International 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven C. Hayes
    • 1
  • Kirk Strosahl
    • 2
  • Kelly G. Wilson
    • 3
  • Richard T. Bissett
    • 1
  • Jacqueline Pistorello
    • 1
  • Dosheen Toarmino
    • 1
  • Melissa A. Polusny
    • 4
    • 5
  • Thane A. Dykstra
    • 6
  • Sonja V. Batten
    • 7
  • John Bergan
    • 8
  • Sherry H. Stewart
    • 9
  • Michael J. Zvolensky
    • 10
  • Georg H. Eifert
    • 11
  • Frank W. Bond
    • 12
  • John P. Forsyth
    • 13
  • Maria Karekla
    • 13
  • Susan M. McCurry
    • 14
  1. 1.Department of Psychology / 296University of NevadaRenoUSA
  2. 2.Mountainview Consulting GroupMoxieUSA
  3. 3.University of MississippiOxfordUSA
  4. 4.Minneapolis VA Medical CenterMinneapolisUSA
  5. 5.University of Minnesota School of MedicineMinneapolisUSA
  6. 6.Trinity ServicesLockportUSA
  7. 7.VA Maryland Healthcare SystemBaltimoreUSA
  8. 8.Group Health of Puget SoundOaklandUSA
  9. 9.Dalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  10. 10.University of VermontBurlingtonUSA
  11. 11.Chapman UniversityOrangeUSA
  12. 12.Goldsmiths CollegeUniversity of LondonLondonUK
  13. 13.University at Albany, State University of New YorkAlbanyUSA
  14. 14.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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