Advertisement

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 107–131 | Cite as

Three Myths from the Language Acquisition Literature

  • Ted SchonebergerEmail author
Article

Abstract

Three popular assertions have hindered the promotion of an empiricist approach to language acquisition: (a) that Brown and Hanlon (1970) claimed to offer data that parents do not reinforce their children’s grammatically; (b) that Brown and Hanlon also claimed to offer data that parents do not provide negative evidence (i.e., corrective feedback) for ungrammaticality; and (c) that Gold (1967) claimed to offer a formal proof showing that, without negative evidence, a child cannot acquire a language solely from environmental input. In this paper I offer introductory comments on the nature-nurture distinction (including interactionism, and the nativists’ claim to have found a gene for language). Next I debunk the three aforementioned assertions by arguing that the authors (Brown & Hanlon; Gold) never made the claims attributed to them; review evidence on the role of reinforcement and corrective feedback in language acquisition; and offer some concluding comments.

Key wordsk

Brown and Hanlon (1970) positive evidence negative evidence Gold’s theorem 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahearn, W. H., Clark, K. M., & MacDonald, R. P. F. (2007). Assessing and treating vocal stereotypy in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 263–275.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alessi, G. (1987). Generative strategies and teaching for generalization. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 5, 15–27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anastasi, A. (1958). ‘Heredity, environment, and the question how?’ Psychological Review, 65, 197–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates, E., Elman, J., Johnson, M., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., & Plunkett, K. (1998). Innateness and emergentism. In W. Bechtel & G. Graham (Eds.), A companion to cognitive science (pp. 590–601). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, J. A. (1988). The success of parents indirect techniques for teaching their pre-schoolers pragmatic skills’. First Language, 8, 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett, C. W., & Ling, D. (1972). Teaching a complex verbal response to a hearing-impaired girl. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5, 321–327.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bloom, L. (1991). Language development from two to three. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bohannon, J. N., MacWhinney, B., & Snow, C. E. (1990). No negative evidence revisited: Beyond learnability, or, who has to prove what to whom? Developmental Psychology, 26, 221–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bohannon, J. N., & Stanowicz, L. (1988). The issue of negative evidence: Adult responses to childrens language errors’. Developmental Psychology, 24, 684–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, R., & Bellugi, U. (1964). Three processes in the childs acquisition of syntax’. Harvard Educational Review, 34, 133–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, R., & Hanlon, C. (1970). Derivational complexity and order of acquisition in child speech. In J. R. Hayes (Ed.), Cognition and the development of language (pp. 11–53). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Bruner, J. (1983). Child’s talk: Learning to use language. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  14. Calvin, W. H., & Bickerton, D. (2000/2001). Lingua ex machina: Reconciling Darwin and Chomsky with the human brain. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books.Google Scholar
  15. Carmichael, L. (1925). Heredity and environment: Are they antithetical? Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 20, 245–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carroll, R. A., & Klatt, K. P. (2008). Using stimulus-stimulus pairing and direct reinforcement to teach vocal behavior to young children with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 24, 135–146.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cazden, C. B. (1965). Environmental assistance to the child’s acquisition of grammar. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge MA.Google Scholar
  18. Charlop, M. H., Schreibman, L., & Thibodeau, M. G. (1985). Increasing spontaneous verbal responding in autistic children using a time delay procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 155–166.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chase, P. N., Ellenwood, D. W., & Madden, G. (2008). A behavior analytic analogue of learning to use synonyms, syntax, and parts of speech. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 24, 31–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  21. Chomsky, N. (1980). Rules and representations. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Chomsky, N. (1981). Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
  23. Chomsky, N. (2005). Three factors in language design. Linguistic Inquiry, 36, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chouinard, M. M., & Clark, E. V. (2003). Adult reformation of child errors as negative evidence. Journal of Child Language, 30, 637–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clark, A. S. (2001). Unsupervised language acquisition: Theory and practice (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.issco.unige.ch/staff/clark/thesis.pdf.Google Scholar
  26. Clark, H. B., & Sherman, J. A. (1975). Teaching generative use of sentence answers to three forms of questions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 321–330.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen, P. (1998). Excited researchers think they have found a gene for language. New Scientist, 2119, 77.Google Scholar
  28. Cook, V. J. (1988). Chomsky’s universal grammar: An introduction. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  29. Cowie, F. (1999). What’s within? Nativism reconsidered. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Crain, S. (1991). Language acquisition in the absence of experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 597–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (1998). Investigations in universal grammar: A guide to experiments on the acquisition of syntax and semantics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  32. Demetras, M. J., Post, K. N., & Snow, C. E., (1986). Feedback to first language learners: The role of repetitions and clarification questions. Journal of Child Language, 13, 275–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Demopoulos, W. (1989). On applying learn-ability theory to the rationalism-empiricism controversy. In R. Matthews & W. Demopoulos (Eds.), Learnability and linguistic theory (pp. 77–88). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Elman, J. L., Bates, E. A., Johnson, M. H., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., & Plunkett, K. (1996). Rethinking innateness: A connectionist perspective on development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  35. Falcomata, T. S., Roane, H. S., Hovanetz, A. N., & Kettering, T. L. (2004). An evaluation of response cost in the treatment of inappropriate vocalizations maintained by automatic reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 8387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Farrar, M. J. (1990). Discourse and the acquisition of grammatical morphemes. Journal of Child Language, 17, 607–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Farrar, M. J. (1992). Negative evidence and grammatical morpheme acquisition. Developmental Psychology, 28, 90–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fisher, S. E., Vargha-Khadem, F., Watkins, K. E., Monaco, A. P., & Pembrey, M. E. (1998). Localisation of a gene implicated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature Genetics, 18, 168–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fitch, W. T., Hauser, M. D., & Chomsky, N. (2005). The evolution of the language faculty: Clarifications and implications. Cognition, 97, 179–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fodor, J. A. (1983). The modularity ofmind. Cambridge, mA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  41. Galton, F. (1875). English men of science: Their nature and nurture. New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
  42. Galton, F. (1907). Inquiries into human faculty and its development. New York: Dutton. (Original work published 1883)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Garcia, E. (1974). The training and generalization of a conversational speech form in nonverbal retardates. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 137–149.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Garcia, E. E., & Batista-Wallace, M. (1977). Parental training of the plural morpheme in normal toddlers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 505.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Garcia, E., Guess, D., & Byrnes, J. (1973). Development of syntax in a retarded girl using procedures of imitation, reinforcement, and modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 299–310.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gleitman, L. R., & Gleitman, H. (1986). Language. In H. Gleitman (Ed.), Psychology (2nd ed., pp. 295–334). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  47. Goddard, H. H. (1920). Human efficiency and levels of intelligence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gold, E. M. (1964). Language identification in the limit. Retrieved from http://stinet.dtic.mil/Google Scholar
  49. Gold, E. M. (1967). Language identification in the limit. Information and Control, 10, 447–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Goldstein, H. (1984). Effects of modeling and corrected practice on generative language learning of preschool children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 49, 389–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gopnik, M. (1990). Feature-blind grammar and dysphasia. Nature, 344, 715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gopnik, M., & Crago, M. B. (1991). Familial aggregation of a developmental language disorder. Cognition, 39, 1–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gordon, P. (1990). Learnability and feedback. Developmental Psychology, 26, 217–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gottlieb, G. (1970). Conceptions of prenatal behavior. In L. R. Aronson, E. Tobach, D. S. Lehrman, & J. S. Rosenblatt (Eds.), Development and evolution of behavior: Essays in memory of T. C. Schneirla (pp. 111–137). San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  55. Gottlieb, G. (1976). Conceptions of prenatal development: Behavioral embryology. Psychological Review, 83, 215–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gottlieb, G. (1997). Synthesizing nature-nurture: Prenatal roots of instinctive behavior. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. Gottlieb, G. (1998). Normally occurring environmental and behavioral influences on gene activity: From central dogma to probabilistic epigenesis. Psychological Review, 105, 792–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Greer, R. D., & Yuan, L. (2008). How kids learn to say the darnedest things: The effect of multiple exemplar instruction on the emergence of novel verb usage. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 24, 103–121.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Griffiths, P., & Gray, R. (1994). Developmental systems and evolutionary explanation. Journal ofPhilosophy, 91, 277–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Guess, D., Sailor, W., Rutherford, G., & Baer, D. M. (1968). An experimental analysis of linguistic development: The productive use of the plural morpheme. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 297–306.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hart, B. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Establishing use of descriptive adjectives in the spontaneous speech of disadvantaged preschool children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 109–120.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1974). Using preschool materials to modify the language of disadvantaged children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 243–256.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1975). Incidental teaching of language in the preschool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 411–420.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hernandez, E., Hanley, G. P., & Ingvarsson, E. T. (2007). A preliminary evaluation of the emergence of novel mand forms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 137–156.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hester, P., & Hendrickson, J. (1977). Training functional expressive language: The acquisition and generalization of five-element syntactic responses. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 316.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Heward, W. L., & Eachus, H. T. (1979). Acquisition of adjectives and adverbs in sentences written by hearing impaired and aphasic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 391–400.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hirsh-Pasek, K., Treiman, R., & Schneiderman, M. (1984). Brown and Hanlon revisited: Mothers sensitivity to ungrammatical forms’. Journal of Child Language, 11, 81–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hoff, E. (2005). Language development (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  69. Hurst, J. A., Baraitser, M., Auger, E., Graham, F., & Norell, S. (1990). An extended family with a dominantly inherited speech disorder. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32, 347–355.Google Scholar
  70. Ingold, T. (2001). From complementarity to obviation: On dissolving the boundaries between social and biological anthropology, archaeology, and psychology. In S. Oyama, P. E. Griffiths, & R. D. Gray (Eds.), Cycles of contingency: Developmental systems and evolution (pp. 255–279). Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books.Google Scholar
  71. Johnson, K. (2004). Golds theorem and cognitive science’. Philosophy of Science, 71, 571–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Johnston, T. D. (1987). The persistence of dichotomies in the study of behavioral development. Developmental Review, 7, 149–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Johnston, T. D. (1988). Developmental explanation and the ontogeny of birdsong: Nature/nurture redux. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11, 617–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Johnston, T. D. (2002). Genes, interactions, and the development of behavior. Psychological Review, 109, 26–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2005). Batess emergentist theory and its relevance to understanding genotype/phenotype relations’. In M. Tomasello & D. I. Slobin (Eds.), Beyond nature-nurture: Essays in honor of Elizabeth Bates (pp. 219–236). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  76. Kuo, Z.-Y. (1921). Giving up instincts in psychology. Journal of Philosophy, 18, 645–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lai, C. S. L., Fisher, S. E., Hurst, J. A., Vargha-Khadem, F., & Monaco, A. P. (2001). A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature, 413, 519–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lehrman, D. S. (1953). A critique of Konrad Lorenzs theory of instinctive behavior’. Quarterly Review of Biology, 28, 337–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lieberman, P. (2006). Toward an evolutionary biology of language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Lutzker, J. R., & Sherman, J. A. (1974). Producing generative sentence usage by imitation and reinforcement procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 447–460.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Marchman, V., & Thal, D. (2005). Words and grammar. In M. Tomasello & D. I. Slobin (Eds.), Beyond nature-nurture: Essays in honor of Elizabeth Bates (pp. 139–164). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  82. Martin, J. A. (1975). Generalizing the use of descriptive adjectives through modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 203–209.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Matthews, R. J. (1989). Introduction: Learnability and linguistic theory. In R. J. Matthews & W. Demopoulos (Eds.), Learnability and linguistic theory (pp. 117). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McLaughlin, S. (1998). Introduction to language development. San Diego, CA: Singular.Google Scholar
  85. Miguel, C. F., Carr, J. E., & Michael, J. (2001/2002). The effects of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure on the vocal behavior of children diagnosed with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 18, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Moerk, E. L. (1983). The mother of Eve — As a first language teacher. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  87. Moerk, E. L. (1990). Three-term contingency patterns in mother-child verbal interactions during first-language acquisition. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 54, 293–305.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Moerk, E. L. (1991). Positive evidence for negative evidence. First Language, 11, 219–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Moerk, E. L. (2000). The guided acquisition of first language skills. Stamford, CT: Ablex.Google Scholar
  90. Mook, D. G. (1989). The myth of external validity. In L. W. Poon, D. C. Rubin, & B. A. Wilson (Eds.), Everyday cognition in adulthood and late life (pp. 25–43). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Moore, D. S. (2001). The dependent gene: The fallacy of nature vs. nurture. New York: Henry Holt.Google Scholar
  92. Morgan, J. L., & Travis, L. L. (1989). Limits on negative information in language input. Journal of Child Language, 16, 531–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Novak, G. (1996). Developmental psychology: Dynamical systems and behavior analysis. Reno, NV: Context Press.Google Scholar
  94. Novak, G., & Pelaez, M. (2004). Child and adolescent development: A behavioral systems approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  95. Osherson, D. N., Stob, M., & Weinstein, S. (1989). Learning theory and natural language. In R. Matthews & W. Demopoulos (Eds.), Learnability and linguistic theory (pp. 19–50). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Oyama, S. (1985). The ontogeny of information: Developmental systems and evolution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Oyama, S. (2001). Terms in tension: What do you do when all the good words are taken? In S. Oyama, P. E. Griffiths, & R. D. Gray (Eds.), Cycles of contingency: Developmental systems and evolution (pp. 177–193). Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books.Google Scholar
  98. Oyama, S., Griffiths, P. E., & Gray, R. D. (2001). Introduction: What is developmental systems theory? In S. Oyama, P. E. Griffiths, & R. D. Gray (Eds.), Cycles of contingency: Developmental systems and evolution (pp. 1–11). Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books.Google Scholar
  99. Penner, S. G. (1987). Parental responses to grammatical and ungrammatical child utterances. Child Development, 58, 376–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct. New York: Morrow.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pinker, S. (1995). Language acquisition. In D. Osherson, L. R. Gleitman, & M. Liberman (Eds.), An invitation to cognitive science: Vol. 1. Language (2nd ed., pp. 135–182). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  102. Pinker, S. (2001). Talk of genetics and vice versa. Nature, 413, 465–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Plomin, R. (1994). Genetics and experience: The interplay between nature and nurture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  104. Pullum, G. K., & Scholz, B. C. (2003). Linguistic models. In M. T. Banich & M. Mack (Eds.), Mind, brain, and language: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 113–141). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  105. Putnam, H. (1983). What is innate and why: Comments on the debate. In M. Pattelli-Palmarini (Ed.), Language and learning: The debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky (pp. 287–309). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  106. Rheingold, H. L., Gewirtz, J. L., & Ross, H. W. (1959). Social conditioning of vocalizations in the infant. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 52, 68–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rutter, M. (1987). Developmental psychiatry. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  108. Sailor, W. (1971). Reinforcement and generalization of productive plural allomorphs in two retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4, 305–310.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Salzinger, K. (1994). The LAD was a lady, or the mother of all language learning: Review of Moerks First language: Taught and learned’. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 62, 323–329.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Saxton, M. (1992). Negative evidence versus negative feedback: A critical review. Child Language Seminar, University of Glasgow.Google Scholar
  111. Saxton, M. (1993). Does negative input work? First Language, 13, 409–411.Google Scholar
  112. Scherer, N. J., & Olswang, L. B. (1984). Role of mothers expansions in stimulating childrens language production’. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 27, 387–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schneirla, T. C. (1956). ‘Interrelationships of the innate and the acquired in instinctive behavior’. In P.-P. Grasse (Ed.), L’Instinct dans le comportement des animaux et de l’homme (pp. 387–452). Paris: Masson.Google Scholar
  114. Scholz, B. C. (2004). Golds theorems and the logical problem of language acquisition’. Journal of Child Language, 31, 959–961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schumaker, J., & Sherman, J. A. (1970). Training generative usage by imitation and reinforcement procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3, 273–287.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Secan, K. E., Egel, A. L., & Tilley, C. S. (1989). Acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of question-answering skills in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 181–196.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Siegel, G. M., Lenske, J., & Broen, P. (1969). Suppression of normal speech disfluencies through response cost. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 265–276.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sigelman, C. K., & Rider, E. A. (2005). Lifespan human development. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  119. Silvestri, S., Davies-Lackey, A., Twyman, J., & D. C. (in preparation). The role of automatic reinforcement in the acquisition of autoclitic frames.Google Scholar
  120. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  121. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Slobin, D. I. (1968). Imitation and grammatical development in children. In N. S. Endler, L. R. Boulter, & H. Osser (Eds.), Contemporary issues in developmental psychology (pp. 283–297). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  123. Smith, R., Michael, J., & Sundberg, M. L. (1996). Automatic reinforcement and automatic punishment in infant vocal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 13, 39–48.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Stevens-Long, J., & Rasmussen, M. (1974). The acquisition of simple and compound sentence structure in an autistic child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 473–479.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Strapp, C. M., Bleakney, D. M., Helmick, A. L., & Tonkovich, H. M. (2008). Developmental differences in the effects of negative and positive evidence. First Language, 28, 35–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Strapp, C. M., & Federico, A. (2000). Imitations and repetitions: What do children say following recasts? First Language, 20, 273–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sundberg, M. L. (2007). Verbal behavior. In J. O. Cooper, T. E. Heron, & W. L. Heward, (Eds.), Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed., pp. 526–547). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  128. Sundberg, M. L., Michael, J., Partington, J. W., & Sundberg, C. A. (1996). The role of automatic reinforcement in early language acquisition. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 13, 21–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Terman, L. W. (1922). Were we born that way? World’s Work, 44, 660.Google Scholar
  130. Thelen, E., & Smith, L. B. (1994). A dynamical systems approach to the development of cognition and action. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books.Google Scholar
  131. Thelen, E., & Ulrich, B. D. (1991). Hidden skills: A dynamic systems analysis of treadmill stepping during the first year. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 56 (1, Serial No. 223).Google Scholar
  132. Trask, R. L. (1993). A dictionary of grammatical terms in linguistics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  133. Valleley, R. J., Shriver, M. D., & Rozema, S. (2005). Using brief experimental assessment of reading interventions for identification and treatment of a vocal habit. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 129–133.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Vargha-Khadem, F., Watkins, K., Alcock, K., Fletcher, P., & Passingham, R. (1995). Praxic and nonverbal cognitive deficits in a large family with a genetically transmitted speech and language disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92, 930–933.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Vaughan, M. E., & Michael, J. L. (1982). Automatic reinforcement: An important but ignored concept. Behaviorism, 10, 217–227.Google Scholar
  136. Weisberg, P. (1963). Social and nonsocial conditioning of infant vocalizations. Child Development, 55, 377–388.Google Scholar
  137. West, M. J., & King, A. P. (1987). Settling nature and nurture into an ontogenetic niche. Developmental Psychobiology, 20, 549–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wheeler, A. M., & Sulzer, B. (1970). Operant training and generalization of a verbal response form in a speech-deficient child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3, 139–147.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Whitehurst, G. J., & Valdez-Menchaca, M. C. (1988). What is the role of reinforcement in early language acquisition? Child Development, 59, 430–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wiggam, A. E. (1923). The new decalogue of science. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  141. Wright, A. N. (2006). The role of modeling and automatic reinforcement in the construction of the passive voice. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 22, 153–169.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wulfert, E., & Hayes, S. C. (1988). The transfer of conditional sequencing through conditional equivalence classes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 50, 125–144.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Yoon, S. (1998). Effects of an adult’s vocal sound paired with a reinforcing event on the subsequent acquisition of mand functions (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. TX 4-872-654).Google Scholar
  144. Yoon, S., & Bennett, G. M. (2000). Effects of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure on conditioning vocal sounds as reinforcers. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 17, 7588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Zukow, P. G. (1990). Socio-perceptual bases for the emergence of language: An alternative to innatist approaches. Developmental Psychobiology, 23, 705–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Behavior Analysis International 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kohala Educational ServicesUSA

Personalised recommendations