Advertisement

Historical Archaeology

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 74–89 | Cite as

Time, Seasonality, and Trade: Swedish/Finnish-Sámi Interactions in Early Modern Lapland

  • James Symonds
  • Timo Ylimaunu
  • Anna-Kaisa Salmi
  • Risto Nurmi
  • Titta Kallio-Seppä
  • Tiina Kuokkanen
  • Markku Kuorilehto
  • Annemari Tranberg
Article

Abstract

Recent theoretical debates have identified time as a key area for research by historical archaeologists. In this paper we present evidence from Tornio, in northern Finland, and suggest that the early-17th-century colonists who founded this town developed a multidimensional conception of time that varied according to context and allowed deeply held folk beliefs to coexist alongside Lutheran doctrines and also facilitated seasonal trade with the indigenous Sami people in the upper reaches of Lapland.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aalto, Seppo 1996 Kirkko ja kruunu siveellisyyden vartijoina: Seksuaalirikollisuus, esivalta ja yhteisö Porvoon kihlakunnassa 1621–1700 (The control of morality by church and Crown: Sexual delinquency, the authorities and community in the district of Porvoo in 1621–1700). Suomen Historiallinen Seura, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, Benedict 2007 Kuvitellut yhteisöt: Nationalismin alkuperän ja leviämisen tarkastelua (Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism), Joel Kuortti, translator. Vastapaino, Tampere, Finland.Google Scholar
  3. Bailey, Geoff N. 1987 Breaking the Time Barrier. Archaeological Review from Cambridge 6:5–20.Google Scholar
  4. Bergman, Ingela 2006 Indigenous Time, Colonial History: Sami Conceptions of Time and Ancestry and the Role of Relics in Cultural Reproduction. Norwegian Archaeological Review 39(2):151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biernoff, Suzannah 2002 Sight and Embodiment in the Middle Ages. Palgrave, London, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carson, Cary, Norman F. Barka, William M. Kelso, Garry Wheeler Stone, and Dell Upton 1981 Impermanent Architecture in the Southern American Colonies. Winterthur Portfolio 16(2&3):135–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark, Grahame 1992 Space, Time and Man: A Prehistorian’s View. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  8. Connerton, Paul 1989 How Societies Remember. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eco, Umberto (editor) 2008 Kauneuden Historia (History of Beauty), Pekka Tuomisto, translator. Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  10. Fur, Gunlög 2006 Colonialism in the Margins: Cultural Encounters in New Sweden and Lapland. Brill Academic, Leiden, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  11. Gell, Alfred 1998 Art and Agency: An Anthropological Theory. Clarendon, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  12. Giles, Kate 2007 Seeing and Believing: Visuality and Space in Pre-Modern England. World Archaeology 39(1): 105–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hall, James 1983 A History of Ideas and Images in Italian Art. John Murray, London, UK.Google Scholar
  14. Herva, Vesa-Pekka 2009 Living (with) Things: Relational Ontology and Material Culture in Early Modern Northern Finland. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 19(3):388–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Herva, Vesa-Pekka, and Anna-Kaisa Salmi 2010 Engaging with Sea and Seals: Environmental and Human-Animal Relations on the Northern Coast of the Early Modern Gulf of Bothnia. Norwegian Archaeological Review 43(2):115–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Herva, Vesa-Pekka, and Timo Ylimaunu 2009 Folk Beliefs, Special Deposits, and Engagement with the Environment in Early Modern Northern Finland. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 28(2):234–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ingold, Tim 1993 The Temporality of the Landscape. World Archaeology 25(2):152–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jones, Andrew 2007 Memory andMaterial Culture. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kallioinen, Mika 2000 Kauppias, kaupunki, kruunu: Turun porvariyhteisö ja talouden organisaatio varhaiskeskiajalta 1570-luvulle (The merchant, the town, and the Crown: The burgher community of Turku and economic organization from the early Middle Ages to the 1570s). Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  20. Knutsson, Kjel 2007 Comment on Ingela Bergman: Indigenous Time, Colonial History: Sami Conceptions of Time and Ancestry and the Role of Relics in Cultural Reproduction. Norwegian Archaeological Review 39:151–161.Google Scholar
  21. Korpela, Jukka 2005 Kristillisyys Karjalassa ja Itä-Suomessa keskiajalla (Christianity in medieval Karelia and eastern Finland). Suomen kirkkohistoriallisen seuran Vuosikirja 95:54–71.Google Scholar
  22. Krötzl, Christian 2005 Miekan vai saarnan voimalla? Kristinuskon tulosta Suomeen ja Itämeren alueelle (By the power of the sword or sermon? On the emergence of Christianity in Finland and the Baltic region). Suomen kirkkohistoriallisen seuran Vuosikirja 95:23–53.Google Scholar
  23. Lahelma, Antti 2007 “On the Back of a Blue Elk”: Recent Ethnohistorical Sources and “Ambiguous” Stone Age Rock Art at Pyhänpää, Central Finland. Norwegian Archaeological Review 40(2):113–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Laine, Esko 2002 Papisto kulttuurin välittäjänä (The role of clergy as cultural agents). In Suomenkulttuurihistoria 2: Tunne ja tieto, Rainer Knapas and Nils Erik Forsgård, editors, pp. 209–216. Tammi, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  25. Landes, David S. 1983 Revolution in Time: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  26. 1987 The Ordering of the Urban Environment: Time, Work, and the Occurrence of Crowds 1790–1835. Past and Present 116:192–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Layton, Robert 1989 Who Needs the Past? Indigenous Values and Archaeology. Routledge, London, UK.Google Scholar
  28. Leone, Mark P. 1978 Time in American Archaeology. In Social Archaeology: Beyond Subsistence and Dating, Charles Redman, M. J. Berman, E. V. Curten, W. T. Langhorne, N. M. Versaggi, and J. C. Wanser, editors, pp. 25–36. Academic Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  29. Lihammer, Anna, and Jonas Nordin (editors) 2010 Modernitetens materialitet: Arkeologiskaperspektiv på det moderna samhällets framväxt (Materials of the modernization: Archaeological perspective on the development of modern society). Museum of National Antiquities Studies 17. Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  30. Lindmark, Daniel 2006 Pietism and Colonialism: Swedish Schooling in 18th Century Sampi. Acta Borealia: A Nordic Journal of Circumpolar Society 23(2):116–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 2013 Colonial Encounters in Early Modern Sampi. In Scandanavian Colonialism and the Rise of Modernity: Small Time Agents in a Global Arena, Magdalena Naum and Jonas M. Nordin, editors, pp. 131–146. Springer, New York, NY.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lucas, Gavin 2005 The Archaeology of Time. Routledge, London, UK.Google Scholar
  33. 2006 Historical Archaeology and Time. In The Cambridge Companion to Historical Archaeology, Dan Hicks and M. C. Beaudry, editors, pp. 34–47. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Luukko, Armas 1954 Pohjois-Pohjanmaan ja Lapin historia II: Pohjois-Pohjanmaan ja Lapin keskiaika sekä 1500-luku (History of northern Ostrobothnia and Lapland 2: Northern Ostrobothnia and Lapland during the medieval period and the 16th century). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan maakuntaliiton ja Lapin maakuntaliiton yhteinen historiantoimikunta, Oulu, Finland.Google Scholar
  35. Magnus, Olaus 2002 Suomalaiset Pohjoisten kansojen historiassa: Osa 2 (Finns in the history of the northern peoples: Part 2), K. Linnilä, M. Utrio, K. Utrio, and K. Linnilä, translators. Tammi, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  36. Mäntylä, Ilkka 1971 Tornion kaupungin historia 1. osa 1621–1809 (The history of Tornio town, part 1, 1621–1809). Tornion kaupunki, Tornio, Finland.Google Scholar
  37. 1993 Tornio—kaupunki (Tornio—town). In Tornionlaakson historia II: 1600-luvulta vuoteen 1809, Olof Hederyd and Yrjö Alamäki, editors, pp. 181–264. Tornionlaakson kuntien historiakirjatoimikunta, Haaparanta, Finland.Google Scholar
  38. McShane, Angela 2009 Subjects and Objects: Material Expressions of Love and Loyalty in Seventeenth-Century England. Journal of British Studies 48(4):871–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Meskell, Lynn 2004 Object Worlds in Ancient Egypt: Material Biographies Past and Present. Berg, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  40. Miller, Daniel 1994 Artefacts and the Meaning of Things. In Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology, Tim Ingold, editor, pp. 396–419. Routledge, London, UK.Google Scholar
  41. Müller, Leos, Göran Rydén, and Weiss Holger (editors) 2010 Global historia från periferin: Norden 1600–1850 (Global history from the periphery: The North 1600–1850). Studentletteratur, Lund, Sweden.Google Scholar
  42. Murray, Tim (editor) 1999 Time and Archaeology. Routledge, London, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mytum, Harold 2007 Materiality and Memory: An Archaeological Perspective on the Popular Adoption of Linear Time in Britain. Antiquity 81(312):381–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Naum, Magdalena, and Jonas M. Nordin (editors) 2013 Scandinavian Colonialism and the Rise of Modernity: Small Time Agents in a Global Arena. Springer, New York, NY.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nielsen, Axel E. 2008 The Materiality of Ancestors: Chullpas and Social Memory in the Late Prehispanic History of the South Andes. In Memory Work: Archaeologies of Material Practices, Barbara J. Mills and William H. Walker, editors, pp. 207–231. School for Advanced Research Press, Santa Fe, NM.Google Scholar
  46. Nikander, Gabriel 1984 Kokkolan kaupungin historia osat 1–2 (History of Kokkola Town parts 1–2). Kokkolan kaupungin kustantama, Vaasa, Finland.Google Scholar
  47. Nordin, Jonas M. 2012 Embodied Colonialism: The Cultural Meaning of Silver in a Swedish Colonial Context in the 17th century. Post-Medieval A rchaeology 46(1):143–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nurmi, Risto 2011 Development of the Urban Mind—an Object Biographical Approach: The Case Study of the Town of Tornio, Northern Finland. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.Google Scholar
  49. Nyström, Maurits 1983 Lulebygdens handel före stardsgrundandet (The trade in the Luleå region before the founding of the town). Norrbotten 82–83:63–77.Google Scholar
  50. Outhier, Regnard 1975 Matka Pohjanperille 1736–1737 (Journal of a voyage to the North 1736–1737), Marja Itkonen-Kaila, translator. Otava, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  51. Paavola, Kirsti 1998 Kepeät mullat: Kirjallisiin ja esineellisiin lähteisiin perustuva tutkimus Pohjois-Pohjanmaan rannikon kirkkohaudoista (Light soils: Research based on written and material sources of the church graves in the northern Ostrobothnian coastal area). Acta Universitatis Ouluensis B Humaniora 28. Oulu, Finland.Google Scholar
  52. Paulaharju, Samuli 2010 VanhaaLappia jaPeräpohjaa (Ancient Lapland and northern Ostrobothnia). Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden seura, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  53. Porr, Martin, and Hannah Rachel Bell 2012 “Rock-Art,” “Animism” and Two-Way Thinking: Towards a Complementary Epistemology in the Understanding of Material Culture and “Rock-Art” of Hunting and Gathering People. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 19(1):161–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Porsanger, Jelena 2005 Time. In The Saami: A Cultural Encyclopaedia, Ulla-Maija Kulonen, Irja Seurujärvi-Kari, and Risto Pulkkinen, editors, pp. 415–416. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  55. Provincial Archives of Oulu 1666–1776 Probate Inventories of Tornio Residents. Probate Inventories BIa: 1–7, Tornio Town Archive, Tornio, Finland.Google Scholar
  56. Regnard, Jean François 1982 Retki Lappiin (Voyage to Lapland), Marja Itkonen-Kaila, translator. Otava, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  57. Santi, Bruno 1983 Botticelli. Bococci Editore, Florence, Italy.Google Scholar
  58. Sarmela, Matti 1994 Suomen perinneatlas: Suomen kansankulttuurin kartasto 2. (Finnish folklore: Atlas of Finnish ethnic culture 2:). Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden Seuran toimituksia 587. Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  59. Shanks, Michael, and Christopher Tilley 1987 Abstract and Substantial Time. Archaeological Review from Cambridge 6:32–41.Google Scholar
  60. Silliman, Stephen 2010 Indigenous Traces in Colonial Spaces: Archaeologies of Ambiguity, Origin, and Practice. Journal of Social Archaeology 10(1):28–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Slunga, Nils 1993 Kirkko ja koulu—papisto ja kirkollinen elämä (Church and school—clergy and the ecclesiastical life). In Tornionlaakson historia II, 1600-luvulta vuoteen 1809, Olof Hederyd and Yrjö Alamäki, editors, pp. 280–313. Tornionlaakson kuntien historiakirjatoimikunta, Haaparanta, Sweden.Google Scholar
  62. Tamelander, Eino 1941 Tornion kaupungin pesäluetteloja 1666–1800 (Probate inventories of the town of Tornio 1666–1800). Peräpohjolan ja Lapin Kotiseutuyhdistys, Tornio, Finland.Google Scholar
  63. Thomas, Julian 1996 Time, Culture, and Identity. An Interpretative Archaeology. Routledge, London, UK.Google Scholar
  64. Thompson, Edward P. 1967 Time, Work-Disc ip line and Industrial Capitalism. Past and Present 38(1):56–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tuhkanen, Tuija 2005 ‘IN MEMORIAM SUI ET SUORUM POSUIT”: Lahjoittajien muistokuvat Suomen kirkoissa 1400-luvulta 1700-luvun lopulle (“IN MEMORIAM SUI ET SUORUM POSUIT”: Donors’ votive paintings in Finnish churches from the 15th century to the end ofthe 18th century). Åbo Akademis Förlag, Åbo, Finland.Google Scholar
  66. Vahtola, Jouko 1997 Vaikea vuosisata (1601–1721) (Troubled century [1601–1721]). In Keminmaan historia, Reija Satokangas, editor, pp. 86–177. Keminmaan kunta, Keminmaan seurakunta, Keminmaa, Finland.Google Scholar
  67. Virrankoski, Pentti 1973 Pohjois-Pohjanmaan ja Lapin historia III: Pohjois-Pohjanmaa ja Lappi 1600-luvulla (History of northern Ostrobothnia and Lapland 3: Northern Ostrobothnia and Lapland during the 17th century). Pohjois-Pohjanmaan, Kainuun ja Lapin maakuntaliittojen yhteinen historiatoimikunta, Oulu, Finland.Google Scholar
  68. Wallerström, Thomas 1983 Kulturkontakter I Norrbottens kustland under medeltiden (Culture contacts in the coastal area of Norrbotten during the Middle Ages). Norrbotten 82–83:16–55.Google Scholar
  69. 1995 Norrbotten, Sverige och medeltiden: Problem kring makt och bosättning i en europeisk periferi, Del 1 (Norrbotten, Sweden and the Middle Ages: Problems concerning power and population on the European periphery, part 1). Almqvist & Wiksell International, Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  70. Woolgar, Christopher M. 2006 The Senses in Late Medieval England. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  71. Ylimaunu, Juha 2000 Itämeren hylkeenpyyntikulttuurit ja ihminen—hylje—suhde (The sealing cultures and the human-seal relationship of the Baltic Sea). Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden seura, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  72. Ylimaunu, Timo 2007 Aittakylästä kaupungiksi—arkeologinen tutkimus Tornion kaupungistumisesta 18. vuosisadan loppuun mennessä (From warehouse village into a town-archaeological study of urbanization in Tornio before the end of the 18th century). Studia Archaeologica Septentrionalia 4. Pohjois-Suomen Historiallinen Yhdistys, Rovaniemi, Finland.Google Scholar
  73. Zimmerman, Larry J. 1987 The Impact of the Concepts of Time and Past on the Concept of Archaeology: Some Lessons from the Reburial Issue. Archaeological Review from Cambridge 6:42–50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Historical Archaeology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Symonds
    • 1
  • Timo Ylimaunu
    • 2
  • Anna-Kaisa Salmi
    • 2
  • Risto Nurmi
    • 2
  • Titta Kallio-Seppä
    • 3
  • Tiina Kuokkanen
    • 2
  • Markku Kuorilehto
    • 4
  • Annemari Tranberg
    • 2
  1. 1.ACASA Department of ArchaeologyUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Archaeology Faculty of HumanitiesUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  3. 3.University of Oulu Graduate SchoolUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  4. 4.University of Oulu Teacher Training School, Faculty of EducationUniversity of OuluOuluFinland

Personalised recommendations