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Historical Archaeology

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 14–28 | Cite as

Russian Colonization: The Implications of Mercantile Colonial Practices in the North Pacific

  • Kent G. Lightfoot
Article

Abstract

The maritime fur trade propelled Russian expansion into the North Pacific in the 18th and 19th centuries. The mercantile legacy of Russian colonization is evident in the rapid founding of settlements across an immense region, the corporate hierarchy of the colonial administration, and the policies and practices for the treatment of indigenous peoples. Russian fur merchants transported to North America colonial practices that originated in Siberia. In contrast to American and British merchants on the Northwest Coast who relied on commodity exchange with autonomous native hunters for furs, Russians forced native hunters to work directly for their companies, initially by military force and the taking of hostages to insure tribute payments and later by mandatory conscription. While relatively few Europeans immigrated to Russian America, colonial administrators relocated scores of native and “mixed blood” workers to new colonies. What emerged was a different twist to the colonial encounters that unfolded among indigenous populations and “colonists.” Rather than confronting successive waves of European immigrants, local peoples interacted primarily with other natives from homelands dispersed across the North Pacific. Historical archaeology has much to contribute to understanding the long-term impacts of “native-to-native” interactions in pluralistic colonial communities.

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© Society for Historical Archaeology 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kent G. Lightfoot
    • 1
  1. 1.Archaeological Research Facility Department of AnthropologyUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

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