A rapid and simple method for determining fungicide resistance in Botrytis
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A simple test based on the germination of conidia of Botrytis on agar media augmented with various fungicides has been developed. Average concentrations causing a 50% reduction of germ-tube growth (EC50) of highly sensitive isolates were determined on 1% malt extract agar (thiophanate-methyl 0.090 ppm; iprodione 0.566 ppm; fludioxonil 0.026 ppm; fenhexamid 0.144 ppm), 1% malt extract agar with 100 ppm salicyl hydroxamic acid (QoI fungicides, viz. trifloxystrobin 0.009 ppm; pyraclostrobin 0.013 ppm; azoxystrobin 0.087 ppm), 0.5% yeast extract agar (boscalid 0.069 ppm) and 0.5% sucrose agar (cyprodinil 0.053 ppm). In order to detect different levels of resistance against these various fungicides, two discriminatory concentrations were identified for each compound. A routine assay method was developed in which drops of a conidial suspension harvested directly from diseased plant material or sporulating cultures were incubated on each of 20 different agar media. Because of a very short time-span of 24–48 h between sample collection and evaluation of results, field-specific information on the occurrence, frequency and types of resistance of Botrytis against common botryticides in soft-fruit production may be generated prior to the main fungicide spray season at blossom time.
Key wordsBoscalid cyprodinil fenhexamid fludioxonil grey mould iprodione QoI fungicides thiophanate-methyl
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