Advertisement

Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 210–214 | Cite as

The correlation between adiposity and adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. Is adipocyte size associated with inflammation in adults?

  • M. BahceciEmail author
  • D. Gokalp
  • S. Bahceci
  • A. Tuzcu
  • S. Atmaca
  • S. Arikan
Original Articles

Abstract

Objective: Hypertrophic obesity correlates with metabolic complications of obesity. We evaluated adipocyte volume and its relationship with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), adiponectin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Subjects and methods: Patients were divided into 4 groups; lean healthy controls [body mass index (BMI): 24.2±1.4 kg/m2], non-diabetic obese patients (30.2±2.9), obese (30.1 ±3.2) and non-obese (22.2±1.5) Type 2 diabetic patients. TNF-α, hs-CRP, adiponectin and IL-6 levels were measured preoperatively and sc fat specimens were obtained during operation. Semi-thin sections were stained with toluidine-blue and evaluated by light microscopy. Fat volumes were calculated by Goldrick’s formulation. Results: Mean adipocyte volumes were higher in obese diabetic patients than in other groups (p<0.0001). Mean TNF-α, hs-CRP and IL-6 levels were higher in obese diabetic patients than in control subjects, obese non-diabetic and non-obese diabetic patients (p<0.0001, p<0.02 and p<0.01. respectively). Mean TNF-α levels of non-diabetic obese patients were higher than the control group (p<0.05). Mean IL-6 levels of diabetic and non-diabetic obese patients were higher than control subjects (p<0.02 and p<0.0001, respectively). Mean adiponectin levels of control subjects were higher than non-diabetic obese, non-obese diabetic and obese-diabetic subjects (p<0.0001). Mean adiponectin levels of obese diabetic patients were lower than non-diabetic obese subjects (p<0.008). Mean hs-CRP levels were higher in diabetic patients whether they were obese or not. There was a positive correlation between adipocyte size and TNF-α (p<0.01), IL-6 (p<0.03) and hs-CRP levels (p<0.004), and negative correlation between adipocyte size, adiponectin levels (p<0.0001). Conclusions: TNF-α, IL-6 and hs-CRP levels were positively, adiponectin negatively correlated with adipocyte size. Therefore, adiposity may be an inflammatory condition.

Key Words

TNF-α IL-6 hs-CRP adiponectin adipocyte volume obesity inflammation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Salans LB, Cushman SW, Weismann RE. Studies of human adipose tissue. Adipose cell size and number in nonobese and obese patients. J Clin Invest 1973, 52: 929–41.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bray GA, Ryan DH. Clinical evaluation of the overweight patient. Endocrine 2000, 13: 167–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aronne LJ. Classification of obesity and assessment of obesity-related health risks. Obes Res 2002, 10 (Suppl 2): 105S–15S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cottam DR, Mattar SG, Barinas-Mitchell E, et al. The chronic inflammatory hypothesis for the morbidity associated with morbid obesity: implications and effects of weight loss. Obes Surg 2004, 14: 589–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bernshtein LM. Hormones of adipose tissue (adipocytokines): ontogenetic and oncologic aspects. Adv Gerontol 2005, 16: 51–64.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bastard JP, Jardel C, Bruckert E, et al. Elevated levels of interleukin 6 are reduced in serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women after weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000, 85: 3338–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bruun JM, Lihn AS, Pedersen SB, et al. Regulation of adiponectin by adipose tissue-derived cytokines: in vivo and in vitro investigations in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2003, 285: E527–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yudkin JS. Adipose tissue, insulin action and vascular disease: inflammatory signals. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003, 27 (Suppl 3): S25–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hotamisligil GS, Murray DL, Choy LN, Spiegelman BM. Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits signaling from the insulin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994, 91: 4854–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ofei F, Hurel S, Newkirk J, Sopwith M, Taylor R. Effects of an engineered human anti-TNF-alpha antibody (CDP571) on insulin sensitivity and glycemic control in patients with NIDDM. Diabetes 1996, 45: 881–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985, 28: 412–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goldrick RB. Morphological changes in the adipocyte during fat deposition and mobilization. Am J Physiol 1967, 212: 777–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    European Concerted Action on Thrombosis and Disabilities Angina Pectoris Study Group, Haverkate F, Thompson SG, Pyke SD, Gallimore JR, Pepys MB. Production of C-reactive protein and risk of coronary events in stable and unstable angina. Lancet 1997, 349, 462–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ridker PM, Glynn RJ, Hennekens CH. C-reactive protein adds to the predictive value of total and HDL cholesterol in determining risk of first myocardial infarction. Circulation 1998, 97: 2007–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 2000, 342: 836–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Danesh J, Whincup P, Walker M, et al. Low grade inflammation and coronary heart disease: prospective study and updated meta-analyses. BMJ 2000, 321: 199–204.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bahceci M, Tuzcu A, Ogun C, Canoruc N, Iltimur K, Aslan C. Is serum C-reactive protein concentration correlated with HbA1c and insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetic men with or without coronary heart disease? J Endocrinol Invest 2005, 28: 145–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Curat CA, Miranville A, Sengenes C, et al. From blood monocytes to adipose tissue-resident macrophages: induction of diapedesis by human mature adipocytes, Diabetes 2004, 53: 1285–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weisberg SP, McCann D, Desai M, Rosenbaum M, Leibel RL, Ferrante AW. Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue, J Clin Invest 112, 2003: 1796–808.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xu H, Barnes GT, Yang Q, et al. Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance, J Clin Invest 112, 2003: 1821–30.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kalantar-Zadeh K, Block G, Horwich T, Fonarow GC. Reverse epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004, 43: 1439–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Bahceci
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. Gokalp
    • 1
  • S. Bahceci
    • 2
  • A. Tuzcu
    • 1
  • S. Atmaca
    • 3
  • S. Arikan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EndocrinologyDicle University School of MedicineDiyarbakirTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Histology and EmbryologyDicle University School of MedicineDiyarbakirTurkey
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyDicle University School of MedicineDiyarbakirTurkey

Personalised recommendations