Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 32, Issue 6, pp 505–511 | Cite as

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Galicia (NW Spain) on four alternative definitions and association with insulin resistance

  • M. A. Tomé Martínez de Rituerto
  • M. A. Botana
  • C. Cadarso-Suárez
  • A. Rego-Iraeta
  • A. Fernández-Mariño
  • J. A. Mato
  • I. Solache
  • R. Perez-Fernandez
Original Articles


The present study evaluated the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in a representative sample (no.=2860) of adults from the Spanish region of Galicia using the definitions of a) the World Health Organization; b) the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults; c) the European Group for Study of Insulin Resistance; and d) the International Diabetes Federation. In addition, we assess concordance among the different definitions, and the relationships of MS with insulin resistance (IR) as assessed by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) index. Our results indicate a high prevalence of MS under all 4 definitions. MS prevalence was higher in men than women on all 4 definitions, and increased significantly with body mass index and age. IR was high among subjects with MS, and the HOMA index was a good discriminator of MS and non-MS on all 4 definitions, suggesting that HOMA index may be a useful predictive tool in clinical practice.


ATP-III EGIR IDF metabolic syndrome WHO 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kylin E. Studien über das Hypertonie-hyperglykemie-hyperurikemie syndrom. Zentralblatt fuer Innere Med 1923, 44: 105–27.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vague J. Sexual differentiation, a factor affecting the forms of obesity. Presse Med 1947, 55: 339–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Avogaro P, Crepaldi G, Enzi G, Tiengo A. Associazione di iperlipidemia, diabete mellito e obesità di medio grado. Acta Diabetol Lat 1967, 4: 36–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reaven GM. Banting Lecture 1998. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988, 37: 1595–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reaven GM. Insulin resistance/compensatory hyperinsulinemia, essential hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003, 88: 2399–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haffner SM, Valdez RA, Hazuda HP. Prospective analysis of the insulin-resistance syndrome (syndrome X). Diabetes 1992, 41: 715–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Meigs JB. Invited commentary: Insulin resistance syndrome? Syndrome X? Multiple metabolic syndrome? A syndrome at all? Factor analysis reveals patterns in the fabric of correlated metabolic risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 2000, 152: 908–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet 2005, 365: 1415–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bray GA, Bellanger T. Epidemiology, trends, and morbidities of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Endocrine 2006, 29: 109–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001, 24: 683–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kahn R, Buse J, Ferrannini E, Stern M. The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal: joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005, 28: 2289–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Shaw J. Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature 2001, 414: 782–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    World Health Organization. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: Diagnosis and classification of the diabetes mellitus. Geneva, Switzerland, 1999.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hills SA, Balkau B, Coppack SW, et al; EGIR-RISC Study Group. The EGIR-RISC STUDY (The European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance: Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk): I. Methodology and Objectives. Diabetologia 2004, 47: 566–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome. An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005, 112: 2735–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J; IDF Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group. The metabolic syndrome: a new world-wide definition. Lancet 2005, 366: 1059–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salas A, Comas D, Lareu MV, Bertranpetit J, Carracedo A. mtDNA analysis of the Galician population: a genetic edge of European variation. Eur J Hum Genet 1998, 6: 365–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    World Health Organization. Obesity — preventing and managing the global epidemic: report of a WHO consultation on obesity. Geneva, Switzerland, 1998.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Foz M, Barbany M, Remesar X. Consenso SEEDO’2000 para la evaluación del sobrepeso y la obesidad y el establecimiento de criterios de intervención terapéutica. Sociedad Española para el estudio de la Obesidad (SEEDO). Med Clin (Barc) 2000, 115: 587–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Botana MA, Mato JA, Cadarso C, et al. Overweight, obesity and central obesity prevalences in the region of Galicia in Northwest Spain. Obes Metab 2007, 3: 106–15.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perez-Fernandez R, Mariño AF, Cadarso C, et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Galicia (Spain) and association with related diseases. J Hum Hypertens 2007, 21: 366–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003, 26 (Suppl 1): s5–20.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis Model Assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985, 28: 412–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cameron AJ, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome: prevalence in worldwide populations. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2004, 33: 351–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Batsis JA, Nieto-Martinez RE, Lopez-Jimenez F. Metabolic syndrome: from global epidemiology to individualizad medicine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007, 8: 509–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Boronat M, Chirino R, Varillas VF, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the island of Gran Canaria: comparison of three major diagnostic proposals. Diabet Med 2005, 22: 1751–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Balkau B, Charles MA. Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation. European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR). Diabet Med 1999, 16: 442–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examiation Survey. JAMA 2002, 287: 356–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Onat A, Ceyhan K, Basar O, et al. Metabolic syndrome: major impact on coronary risk in a population with low cholesterol levels- a prospective and cross-sectional evaluation. Atherosclerosis 2002, 165: 285–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Azizi F, Salehi P, Etemadi A, Zahedi-Asl S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2003, 61: 29–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gupta A, Gupta R, Sarna M, Rastogi S, Gupta VP, Kothari K. Prevalence of diabetes impairing fasting glucose and insulin resistance syndrome in an urban Indian population. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2003, 61: 69–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Athyros VG, Bouloukos VI, Pehlivanidis AN, et al; MetS-Greece Collaborative Group. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Greece. The MetS-Greece Multicentre Study. Diabetes Obes Metab 2005, 7: 397–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu J, Hanley AJ, Young TK, et al. Characteristics and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among three ethnic groups in Canada. Int J Obes (Lond) 2005, 30: 669–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lorenzo C, Serrano-Rios M, Martinez-Larrad MT, et al. Central adiposity determines prevalence differences of the metabolic syndrome. Obes Res 2003, 11: 1480–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bosello O, Zamboni M. Visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obes Rev 2000, 1: 47–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mori Y, Hoshino K, Yokota K, et al. Differences in the pathology of the metabolic syndrome with or without visceral fat accumulation. Endocrine 2006, 29: 149–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zarich SW. Cardiovascular risk factors in the metabolic syndrome: impact of insulin resistance on lipids, hypertension and the development of diabetes and cardiac events. Rev Cardiovasc Med 2005, 6: 194–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Tomé Martínez de Rituerto
    • 1
  • M. A. Botana
    • 2
  • C. Cadarso-Suárez
    • 3
  • A. Rego-Iraeta
    • 4
  • A. Fernández-Mariño
    • 5
  • J. A. Mato
    • 6
  • I. Solache
    • 7
  • R. Perez-Fernandez
    • 8
  1. 1.Endocrine Service, Department of MedicineUniversity Clinical Hospital, Santiago de Compostela, SpainSantiago de CompostelaSpain
  2. 2.Endocrine SectionXeral-Calde HospitalLugo
  3. 3.Department of Statistics and Operations Research (Unit of Statistics), School of MedicineUniversity of Santiago de CompostelaSantiago de Compostela
  4. 4.Endocrine ServiceXeral-Cies HospitalSpain
  5. 5.Coya Speciality CentreVigo
  6. 6.Endocrine ServiceCristal-Piñor HospitalSpain
  7. 7.Endocrine ServiceCristal-Piñor HospitalOurense
  8. 8.Department of Physiology, School of MedicineUniversity of Santiago de CompostelaSantiago de CompostelaSpain

Personalised recommendations