Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 24, Issue 9, pp 716–723 | Cite as

Endocrine complications of thalassemia

Review Article


Growth, sexual development, fertility, bone mineral density, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and hypoadrenalism are the main issues to be addressed in the long-term follow-up of patients with thalassemia. During childhood, growth may be affected by anemia, and other potential endocrine complications. Puberty is the stage of the maximal growth insult. Beta thalassemia is associated with bone abnormalities characterized by bone marrow expansion of the medullary cavity, and osteopenia with cortical thickening and trabecular coarsening. Good nutrition with adequate vitamins and trace elements intake, along with calcium and vitamin D supplementation, can increase bone density and prevent bone loss. Endocrine abnormalities should be monitored carefully and a thorough endocrine evaluation should be carried out yearly in every patients to detect subclinical endocrinopaties.


Thalassemia endocrinopathies growth puberty bone glucose metabolism thyroid parathyroid adrenal 


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsRambam Medical CenterHaifaIsrael

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