Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 22, Issue 8, pp 641–645

Tolerability profile of SERMs

  • Donato Agnusdei
  • N. Iori


SERMs tamoxifen raloxifene hot flushes venous thrombosis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kauffman R.F., Bryant H.U. Selective estrogen receptor modulators. Drug News and Perspectives 1995, 8: 531–539.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Black L.J., Sato M., Rowley E.R., Magee D.E., Bekele A., Williams D.C., Cullinan G.J., Bendele R., Kaufman R.F., Bensch W.R., Frolik C.A., Termine J.D., Bryant H.U. Raloxifene (LY138481 HCl) prevents bone loss and reduces serum cholesterol without causing uterine hypertrophy in ovariectomized rats. Clin. Invest. 1994, 93: 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Draper M.W., Flowers D.E., Huster W.J., Neild J.A., Harper K.D., Arnaud C.D. A controlled trial of raloxifene (LY139481) HCl: impact on bone turnover and serum lipid profile in healthy postmenopausal women. Bone Miner. Res. 1996, 11: 835–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bryant H.U., Dere W.H. Selective estrogen receptor modulators: an alternative to hormone replacement therapy. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1998, 217: 45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fisher B., Costantino J.P., Wickerham D.L., Redmond C.K., Kavanah M., Cronin W.M., Vogel V., Robidoux A., Dimitrov N., Atkins J., Daly M., Wieand S., Tan-Chiu E., Ford L., Wolmark N. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 study. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1998, 90: 1371–1388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Powles T., Eeles R., Ashley S., Easton D., Chang J., Dowsett M., Tidy A., Viggers J., Davey J. Interim analysis of the incidence of breast cancer in the Royal Marsden Hospital tamoxifen randomised chemoprevention trial. Lancet 1998, 352: 98–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Veronesi U., Maisonneuve P., Costa A., Sacchini V., Maltoni C., Robertson C., Rotmensz N., Boyle P. Prevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen: preliminary findings from the italian randomised trial among hysterectomised women. Lancet 1998, 352: 93–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fisher B., Costantino J.P., Redmond C.K., Fisher E.R., Wickerham D.L., Cronin W.M. Endometrial cancer in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients: findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-14. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1994, 86: 527–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Delmas P.D., Bjarnason N.H., Mitlak B., Ravoux A.C., Shah A.S., Huster W.J., et al. Effects of raloxifene on bone mineral density, serum cholesterol concentrations, and uterine endometrium in postmenopausal women. Engl. J. Med. 1997, 337: 1641–1647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hol T., Cox M.B., Bryant H.U., Draper M.W. Selective estrogen receptor modulators and postmenopausal women’s health. Women’s Health 1997, 6: 523–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davies G.C., Huster W.J.L.Y., Plouffe L.J., Lakshmanan M. Adverse events reported by postmenopausal women in controlled trials with raloxifene. Obstet. Gynecol. 1999, 93: 558–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lu Y., Cohen F.J., Lakshmanan M. Characterization of hot flashes during raloxifene therapy: analyses of adverse event reports from an integrated placebo-controlled clinical trial database. Menopause 1998, 95: 98 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kniffin W.D.J., Baron J.A., Barrett J., Birkmeyer J.D., Anderson F.A. The epidemiology of diagnosed pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis in the elderly. Arch. Intern. Med. 1994, 154: 861–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vandenbroucke J.P., Koster T., Briet E., Reitsma P.H., Bertina R.M., Rosendaal F.R. Increased risk of venous thrombosis in oral-contraceptive users who are carriers of factor V Leiden mutation. Lancet 1996, 344: 1453–1457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Daly E., Vessey M.P., Hawkins M.M., Carson J.L., Gough P., Marsh S. Risk of venous thromboembolism in users of hormone replacement therapy. Lancet 1996, 348: 977–980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grodstein F., Stampfer M.J., Goldhaber S.Z., Manson J.E., Colditz G.A., Speizer F.E., Willet W.C., Hennekens C.H. Prospective study of exogenous hormones and risk of pulmonary embolism in women. Lancet 1996, 348: 983–987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jick H., Derby L.E., Myers M.W., Vasilakis C., Newton K.M. Risk of hospital admission for idiopathic venous thromboembolism among users of postmenopausal oestrogens. Lancet 1996, 348: 981–983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gutthann S.P., Rodriguez L.A.G., Castellsague J., Oliart A.D. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of venous thromboembolism: population based case control study. BMJ 1997, 314: 796–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hulley S.B., Grady D., Bush T.L., Furberg C., Herrington D., Riggs B.L., et al. Randomised trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. JAMA 1998, 280: 605–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schneider L.S., Finch C.E. Can estrogens prevent neurodegeneration? Drugs Aging 1997, 11: 87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Paganini-Hill A., Henderson V.W. Estrogen replacement therapy and risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch. Intern. Med. 1996, 156: 2213–2217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yaffe C., Sawaya G., Lieberburg I., Grady D. Estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women. Effects on cognitive function and dementia. JAMA 1998, 279: 688–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nickelsen T., Lufkin E.G., Riggs B.L., Cox D.A., Crook T.H. Raloxifene hydrochloride, a selective estrogen receptor modulator: safety assessment of effects on cognitive function and mood in postmenopausal women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1999, 24: 115–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lorenzo A., Diaz H., Carrer H.F., Cacaeres A. Amygdala neurons in vitro: neurite growth and effects of estradiol. Neurosci. Res. 1992, 33: 418–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nilsen J., Mor G., Naftolin F. Raloxifene induces neurite outgrowth in estrogen receptor positive PC12 cells. Menopause 1998, 5: 211–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nevitt M.C., Ettinger B., Black D.M., Stone K., Jamal S.A., Ensrud K., Segal M., Genant H.K., Cummings S.R. The association of radiographically detected vertebral fractures with back pain and function: a prospective study. Ann. Intern. Med. 1998, 128: 793–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lips P., Cooper C., Agnusdei D., Caulin F., Egger P., Johnell O., Kanis J.A., Liberman U., Minne H.W., Reeve J., Reginster J.Y., De Vernejoul M.C., Wiklund I. Quality of life as outcome in the treatment of osteoporosis: the development of a questionnaire for quality of life by the European Foundation for Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis Int. 1997, 7: 36–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donato Agnusdei
    • 1
  • N. Iori
    • 2
  1. 1.Skeletal DiseasesEli Lilly & Co.Sesto Fiorentino (FI)Italy
  2. 2.Clinical Research PhysicianEli Lilly ItalyItaly

Personalised recommendations