Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 367–372 | Cite as

The validation of the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in Greece

  • K. N. Fountoulakis
  • M. Tsolaki
  • A. Iacovides
  • J. Yesavage
  • R. O’Hara
  • A. Kazis
  • Ch. Ierodiakonou
Original Article


The Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) is a short, 15-item instrument specifically designed to assess depression in geriatric populations. Its items require a yes/no response. The Geriatric Depression Scale was first introduced by Yesavage et al. in 1983, and the short form (GDS-15) was developed by Sheikh and Yesavage in 1986. The aim of the current study was the standardization of the GDS-15 for use in Greece. Subjects were divided into Group A: 168 control subjects, and Group B: 103 patients suffering from clinically diagnosed depression. All were over 65 years of age. A score of 6/7 on the GDS-15 was found to be the best cut-off point for diagnosing depression in an elderly Greek population, with Sensitivity=92.23 and Specificity=95.24. GDS-15 manifests high internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha=0.94, and all items seem to be equivalent. Factor Analysis of the GDS-15 revealed 4 factors: a cognitive (thought content), an affective, a functional, and a factor that reflects helplessness and fear for the future. The two diagnostic groups differed on all 4 factors scores at p-value <0.001.

Key words

GDS-15 geriatric depression Geriatric Depression Scale validation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Internal Publishing Switzerland 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. N. Fountoulakis
    • 1
  • M. Tsolaki
    • 2
  • A. Iacovides
    • 1
  • J. Yesavage
    • 3
  • R. O’Hara
    • 3
  • A. Kazis
    • 2
  • Ch. Ierodiakonou
    • 1
  1. 1.Third Department of PsychiatryAristotle University of ThessalonikiAretsou ThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Third Department of NeurologyAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA

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