The Eating Attitudes Test: Twenty-five years later

  • Paul E. Garfinkel
  • A. Newman
Review Article


This manuscript reviews the literature involved with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), first developed in the late 1970s as a self-report, indicative of the symptoms of eating disorders. The EAT has good psychometric properties of reliability and validity, and reasonable sensitivity and specificity for the eating disorders, but very low positive predictive value because eating disorders are relatively uncommon. In addition they exist on a continuum, because of denial and social desirability, the results of a self-report instrument may be affected. A very large literature has documented the use of the EAT in a variety of cultures. It is used to screen eating disturbances in general as the first part of a two-part diagnostic screen, as an ability to compare across groups and to measure change between groups and over time.


Eating Attitudes Test bulimia dieting cross-cultural studies screening oral control 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Garner D.M., Garfinkel P.E.: Sociocultural factors in anorexia nervosa. Lancet, 2, 674, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Garner D.M., Garfinkel P.E.: The eating attitudes test: an index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Psychol. Med., 9, 273–279, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garner D.M., Olmsted M.P., Bohr Y., Garfinkel P.E.: The Eating Attitudes Test: psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychol. Med., 12, 871–878, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murrelle L., Ainsworth B.E., Bulger J.D., Holliman S.C., Bulger D.W.: Computerized mental health risk appraisal for college students: user acceptability and correlation with standard pencil-and-paper questionnaires. Am. J. Health Promotion, 7, 90–92, 1992.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mann A.H., Wakeling A., Wood K., Monck E., Dobbs R., Szmukler G.: Screening for abnormal eating attitudes and psychiatric morbidity in an unselected population of 15-year-old schoolgirls. Psychol. Med., 3, 573–580, 1983.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carter P.I., Moss R.A.: Screening for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in a college population: Problems and limitations. Addict. Behav., 9, 417–419, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nasser M.: Comparative study of the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Arab female students of both London and Cairo Universities. Psychol. Med., 16, 621–625, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mukai T., Crago M., Shisslak C.M.: Eating attitudes and weight preoccupation among female high school students in Japan. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 35, 677–688, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cuzzolaro M., Petrilli A.: Validazione della versione italiana dell’Eat 40 (Validation of the Italian version of Eat 40). Psichiatria dell’infanzia e dell’Adolescenza, 55, 209–217, 1988.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Toro J., Castro J., Garcia M., Perez P., Cuesta L.: Eating attitudes, sociodemographic factors and body shape evaluation in adolescence. Br. J. Med. Psychol., 62, 61–70, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ko C., Cohen H.: Intraethnic comparison of eating attitudes in Native Koreans and Korean Americans using a Korean translation of the eating attitudes test. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 186, 631–636, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Al-Subaie A., Shammari S., Bamgboye E., Sabhan K., Shehri S., Bannah A.R.: Validity of the Arabic version of the Eating Attitude Test. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 20, 321–324, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Choudry I.Y., Mumford D.B.: A pilot of eating disorders in Mirpur (Pakistan) using an Urdu version of the eating attitudes test. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 11, 243–251, 1992.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Apter A., Yanko Y.: Anorexia nervosa in sub-populations in Israel. Unpublished manuscript, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel, 1989.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Koslowsky M., Scheinberg Z., Bleich A., Mark M., Apter A., Danon Y., Solomon Z.: The factor structure and criterion validity of the short form of the eating attitudes test. J. Pers. Assess. 58: 27–35, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wells J.E., Coope P.A., Gabb C.C., Pears R.K.: The factor structure of the Eating Attitudes Test with adolescent schoolgirls. Psychol. Med., 15: 141–146, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mumford D.B., Whitehouse A.M., Choudry I.Y.: Survey of eating disorders in English-medium schools in Lahore, Pakistan. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 11, 173–184, 1992.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Smead V.S., Richert A.J.: Eating attitude test factors in an unselected undergraduate population. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 9, 211–215, 1990.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee S.: How abnormal is the desire for slimness? A survey of eating attitudes and behaviour among Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong. Psychol. Med., 23, 437–451, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Engelsen B.K., Hagtvet K.A.: A generaliz-ability study of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-12) in non-clinical adolescents. Eating Weight Disord., 4, 179–186, 1999.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wichstrøm L.: Social, psychological and physical correlates of eating problems. A study of the general adolescent population in Norway. Psychol. Med., 25, 567–579, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lavik N.J., Clausen S.E., Pedersen W.: Eating behaviour, drug use, psychopathology and parental bonding in adolescents in Norway. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 84, 387–390, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lundholm J.K., Wolins L.: Disordered eating and weight control behaviors among male and female university students. Addict. Behav. 12, 275–279, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Elal G., Altug P., Slade, Tekcan A:. Factor structure of the Eating Attitudes Test (Eat) in a Turkish university sample. Eating Weight Disord., 5, 46–59, 2000.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Garner D.M., Garfinkel P.E.: Socio-cultural factors in the development of anorexia nervosa. Psychol. Med., 9, 647–656, 1980.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Button E.J., Whitehouse A.: Subclinical anorexia nervosa. Psychol. Med., 11, 509–516, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moss R.A., Jennings G., McFarland J.H., Carter P.: Binge eating, vomiting, and weight fear in a female high school population. 18, 313–320, 1984.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Santonastaso P., Zanetti T., Sala A., Favaretto G., Vidotto G., Favaro A.: Prevalence of eating disorders on a sample of 16-year-old female students. Psychother. Psychosom., 65, 158–162, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    King M.B.: Eating disorders in general practice. Br. Med. J., 293, 1412–1414, 1986.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dolan B., Evans C., Lacey J.H.: The natural history of disordered eating behavior and attitudes in adult women. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 12, 241–248, 1992.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Whitehouse A.M., Phil M., Button E.J.: The prevalence of eating disorders in a U.K. college population: A reclassification of an earlier study. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 7, 393–397, 1988.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Buddeberg-Fischer B., Sieber M., Bernet R., Buddeberg C.: Eating attitudes and behaviours in a Swiss student sample: some preliminary results. European Eating Disorders Review, 2, 233–238, 1994.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Miller M.N., Verhegge R., Miller B.E., Pumariega A.J.: Assessment of risk of eating disorders among adolescents in Appalachia. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 38, 437–443, 1999.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thommen M., Valach L., Kiencke S.: Prevalence of eating disorders in a Swiss family planning clinic: a pilot study. Eating Disorders, 3, 324–331, 1995.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Szmukler G.I., Eisler I., Gilles C., Hayward M.E.: The implications of anorexia nervosa in a ballet school. J. Psychiatr. Res., 19, 177–181, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Abraham S.: Characteristics of eating disorders among young ballet dancers. Psychopathology, 29, 223–229, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fisher M., Pastore D., Schneider M., Pegler C., Napolitano B.: Eating attitudes in urban abnormal eating attitudes in male Dublin adolescents. Ir. J. Psychiatry, 13, 3–5, 1992.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wichstrøm L., Skogen K., Øia T.: Social and cultural factors related to eating problems among adolescents in Norway. J. Adolesc., 17, 471–482, 1994.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Olivardia R., Pope H.G., Mangweth B., Hudson J.I.: Eating disorders in college men. Am. J. Psychiatry, 152, 1279–1285, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Buddeberg-Fischer B., Bernet R., Sieber M., Schmid J., Buddeberg C.: Epidemiology of eating behaviour and weight distribution in 14-to 19-year-old Swiss students. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 93, 296–304, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Halpin C., Fitzgerald M.: Screening for abnormal eating attitudes in male Dublin adolescents. Ir. J. Psychiatry, 13, 3–5, 1992.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Canals J., Carbajo G., Fernandez J., Marti-Henneberg C., Domenech E.: Biopsy-chopathologic risk profile of adolescents with eating disorder symptoms. Adolescence, 31, 443–450, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Woodside D.B., Garner D.M. Rockert W., Garfinkel P.E.: Eating disorders in males: insights from a clinical and psychosometric comparison with female patients. Males With Eating Disorders. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1990.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Franco K.S.M., Tamburrino M.B., Carroll B.T., Bernal G.A.A.: Eating attitudes in college males. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 7, 285–288, 1988.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ohzeki T., Otahara H., Hanaki K., Motozumi H., Shiraki K.: Eating attitudes test in boys and girls age 6–18 years: decrease in concerns with eating in boys and the increase in girls with their ages. Psychopathology, 26, 117–121, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thompson M.G., Schwartz D.M.: Life adjustment of women with anorexia and anorexia-like behaviour. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 1, 47–60, 1982.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Post G., Crowther J.H.: Variables that discriminate bulimic from nonbulimic adolescent females. J. Youth Adolescence, 14, 75–98, 1985.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Russell G.: Bulimia nervosa: an ominous variant of anorexia nervosa. Psychol. Med., 9, 429–488, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gross J., Rosen J.C., Leitenberg H., Willmuth M.E.: Validity of the eating attitudes test and the eating disorders inventory in bulimia nervosa. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 54, 875–876, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Garner D.M., Olmsted M.P., Polivy J.: Development and validation of The Eating Disorders Inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 2, 15–34, 1983.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Thompson K.: Similarities among bulimia nervosa patients categorized by current and historical weight: Implications for the classifications of eating disorders. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 7, 185–189, 1988.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rosen A.M., Murkofsky C.A., Steckler N.M., Skolnick N.J.: A comparison of psychological and depressive symptoms among restricting anorexic, bulimic anorexic and normal-weight bulimic patients. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 8, 657–663, 1989.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Garner D.M., Olmsted M.P., Garfinkel P.E.: Similarities among bulimic groups selected by different weights and weight histories. J. Psychiatr. Res., 19, 129–134, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Favaro A., Olivotto M.C., Zambenedetti M., Pavan T., Santonastaso P.: Subclassifications in eating disorders and obesity. A comparative study of an Italian sample. Psycho-pathology, 29, 77–84, 1996.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Carter J.A., Duncan P.A.: Binge-eating and vomiting: a survey of a high school population. Psychol. Schools, 21, 198–203, 1984.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    King M.B.: Eating disorders in a general practice population. Prevalence, characteristics and follow-up at 12 to 18 months. Psychol. Med., 14, 1–34, 1989.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Steiger H., Leung F.Y.K., Ross D.J., Gulko J.: Signs of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in high school girls reporting combinations of eating and mood symptoms: relevance of self-report to interview-based findings. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 12, 143–149, 1992.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Maloney M.J., McGuire J.B., Daniels S.R.: Reliability testing of a children’s version of the Eating Attitude Test. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 27, 541–543, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Smolak L., Levine M.P.: Psychometric properties of the children’s eating attitudes test. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 16, 275–282, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vernon-Guidry S., Williamson D.A.: Development of a body image assessment procedure for children and preadolescents. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 20, 287–293, 1996.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rolland K., Farnill D., Griffiths R.A.: Eating attitudes and the body mass index of Australian schoolchildren aged 8 to 12 years. European Eating Disorders Review, 6, 107–114, 1998.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wood A., Waller G., Miller J., Slade P.: The development of eating attitude test scores in adolescence. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 3, 279–282, 1992.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gralen S.J., Levine M.P., Smolak L., Murnen S.K.: Dieting and disordered eating during early and middle adolescence: do the influences remain the same? Int. J. Eat. Disord., 9, 501–512, 1990.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Whitaker A., Davies M., Shaffer D., Johnson J., Adams S., Walsh B.T., Kalikow K.: The struggle to be thin: a survey of anorexic and bulimic symptoms in a non-referred adolescent population. Psychol. Med. 19, 143–163, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Flannery-Schroeder E.C., Chrisler J.C.: Body esteem, eating attitudes, and gender-role orientation in three age groups of children. Curr. Psychol., 15, 235–248, 1996.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Edlund B., Halvarsson K., Sjödén P.O.: Eating behaviours, and attitudes to eating, dieting, and body image in 7-year-old Swedish girls. European Eating Disorders Review, 4, 40–53, 1996.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rolland K., Farnill D., Griffiths R.A.: Body figure perceptions and eating attitudes among Australian schoolchildren aged 8 to 12 years. Behav. Sci. Med., 21, 273–278, 1997.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sasson A., Lewin C., Roth D.: Dieting behavior and eating attitudes in Israeli children. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 17, 67–72, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Halvarsson K., Sjödén P.O.: Psychometric properties of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) among 9–10 year-old Swedish girls. European Eating Disorders Review, 6, 115–125, 1998.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kelly C., Ricciardelli L.A., Clarke J.D.: Problem eating attitudes and behaviours in young children. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 25, 281–286, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Edlund B., Halvarsson K., Gebre-Medhin M., Sjödén P.O.: Psychological correlates of dieting in Swedish adolescents: a cross-sectional study. European Eating Disorders Review, 7, 47–61, 1999.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kostanski M., Gullone E.: Dieting and body image in the child’s world: conceptualization and behavior. J. Genet. Psychol., 160, 488–499, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Vernon-Guidry S., Williamson D.A., Netemeyer R.G.: Structural modeling analysis of body dysphoria and eating disorder symptoms in preadolescent girls. Eating Disorders, 5, 15–27, 1997.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rhyne Winkler M.C., Vacc N.A.: Eating-disordered behavior of girls. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling. 24, 119–127, 1989.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vacc N.A., Rhyne M.: The Eating Attitudes Test: Development of an adapted language form for children. Percept. Mot. Skills, 65, 335–336, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rhyne-Winkler M.C.:Eating attitudes in fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade girls. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling. 28, 285–294, 1994.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Steiger H., Stotland S., Ghadirian A.M., Whitehead V.: Controlled study of eating concerns and psycopathological traits in relatives of eating-disordered probands: Do famililial traits exist? Int. J. Eat. Disord., 18, 107–118, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pendley J., Bates J.E.: Mother/daughter agreement on the eating attitudes test and the eating disorder inventory. J. Early Adolescence, 16, 179–191, 1996.Google Scholar
  79. 80.
    Hodes M., Jones C., Davies H.: Cross-cultural differences in maternal evaluation of children’s body shapes. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 19, 257–263, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 81.
    Waller G., Slade P., Calam R.: Family adaptability and cohesion: Relation to eating attitudes and disorders. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 9, 225–228, 1990.Google Scholar
  81. 82.
    Eme R.F., Danielak M.H.: Comparison of fathers of daughters with and without eating attitudes. J. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 3, 40–45, 1995.Google Scholar
  82. 83.
    Nelson W.L., Hughes H.M., Katz B., Searight H.R.: Anorexic eating attitudes and behaviors of male and female college students. Adolescence, 34, 621–633, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 84.
    Moos R. H., Moos B.S.: A typology of family social environments. Family Process, 15, 357–371, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 85.
    Horesh N., Apter A., Ishai J., Danziger Y.A., Miculincer M., Stein D., Lepkifker E., Minouni M.: Abnormal psychosocial situations and eating disorders in adolescence. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 35, 921–927, 1996.Google Scholar
  85. 86.
    Sugar G., Krueger S.: Aggressive family communication, weight gain, and improved eating attitudes during systemic family therapy for anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 17, 23–31, 1995.Google Scholar
  86. 87.
    Rutherford J., McGuffin P., Katz R.J., Murray R.M.: Genetic influences on eating attitudes in a normal female twin population. Psychol. Med., 23, 425–436, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 88.
    Wood A., Waller G., Gowers S.: Predictors of eating psychopathology in adolescent girls. Eating Disorders Review, 2, 6–13, 1994.Google Scholar
  88. 89.
    Hesse-Biber S.: Report on a panel longitudinal study of college women’s eating patterns and eating disorders; noncontinuum versus continuum measures. Health Care for Women International, 13, 375–391, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 90.
    Wichstrøm L.: Psychological and behavioral factors unpredictive of disordered eating: a prospective study of the general adolescent population in Norway. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 28, 33–42, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 91.
    Witcher D.B., Williamson D.A.: Duration of bulimia nervosa and symptom progression: a retrospective analysis of treatment-seeking bulimics. J. Subst. Abuse 4, 255–261, recovered anorectics. Br. J. Clin. Psychol., 25, 61–67, 1986.Google Scholar
  91. 92.
    Steinhausen H.C., Seidel R.: Correspondence between the clinical assessment of eating-disordered patients and findings derived from questionnaires at follow-up. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 14, 367–374, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 93.
    Toner B.B., Garfinkel P.E., Garner D.M.: Measurement of psychometric features and their relationship to clinical outcome in the long-term course of anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 6, 17–27, 1987.Google Scholar
  93. 94.
    Harju B., Bolen L.M.: Personality profiles of bulimia and recovery clients. J. Social Behavior and Personality, 19, 455–464, 1995.Google Scholar
  94. 95.
    Clinton D.N., McKinlay W.W.: Attitudes to food, eating and weight in acutely ill and recovered anorectics. Br. J. Clin. Psychol., 25, 61–67, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 96.
    Sohlberg S., Norring C., Holmgren S., Rosmark B.: Impulsivity and long-term prognosis of psychiatric patients with anorexia nervosa/bulimia nervosa. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 177, 249–258, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 97.
    Steiger H., Stotland S.: Prospective study of outcome in bulimics as a function of axis-II comorbidity; long-term responses on eating and psychiatric symptoms. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 10, 149–161, 1996.Google Scholar
  97. 98.
    Gerstein L.H., Hotelling K.: Length of group treatment and changes in women with bulimia. J. Mental Health Counseling, 9, 162–172, 1987.Google Scholar
  98. 99.
    Jones A., Stone S.: Exploring helpful factors in group psychotherapy for bulimia. Br. Rev. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa, 6, 23–30, 1992.Google Scholar
  99. 100.
    Fernandez F., Turon J., Siegfried J., Meermann R., Vallejo J.: Does additional body therapy improve the treatment of anorexia nervosa? A comparison of two approaches. Eating Disorders, 3, 158–164, 1995.Google Scholar
  100. 101.
    Herman C.P., Polivy J.: Anxiety, restraint, and eating behavior. J. Abnorm. Psychol., 84, 66–72, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 102.
    Kiernan M., Rodin J., Brownell K.D., Wilmore J.H., Crandall C.: Relation of level of exercise, age, and weight-cycling history to weight and eating concerns in male and female runners. Health Psychol., 11, 418–421, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 103.
    Smith G.T., Hohlstein L.A., Atlas J.G.: Accuracy of self-reported weight: covariation with binger or restrainer status and eating disorder symptomatology. Addict. Behav., 17, 1–8, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 104.
    Kreipe R.E., Strauss J., Hodgman C.H., Ryan R.M.: Menstrual cycle abnormalities and subclinical eating disorders: A prelimitudes, and eating behaviors among urban high school students: correlations with self-esteem and anxiety. J. Adolesc. Health, 18, 312–319, 1996.Google Scholar
  104. 105.
    Stein D., Meged S., Bar-Hanin T., Blank S., Elizur A., Weizman A.: Partial eating disorders in a community sample of female adolescents. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 36, 1116–1123, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 107.
    Brookings J.B., Wilson J.F.: Personality and family-environment predictors of self-reported eating attitudes and behaviors. J. Person. Assess., 63, 313–326, 1994.Google Scholar
  106. 108.
    Grand C.L., Fodor I.G.: Adolescent attitudes toward body image and anorexic behavior. Adolescence, 21, 269–281, 1986.Google Scholar
  107. 109.
    Pastore D.R., Fisher M., Friedman S.B.: Abnormalities in weight status, eating attitudes, and eating behaviors among urban high school students: correlations with self-esteem and anxiety. J. Adolesc. Health, 18, 312–319, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 110.
    Fisher M., Schneider M., Pegler C., Napolitano B.: Eating attitudes, health-risk behaviors, self-esteem, and anxiety among adolescent females in a suburban high school. J. Adolesc. Health, 12, 377–384, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 111.
    Pumariega A.J., Gustavson C.R., Gustavson J.C., S.A. Black: Eating attitudes in African-American women: the Essence eating disorders survey. Eating Disorders, 2, 5–16, 1994.Google Scholar
  110. 112.
    Cooper P.J., Waterman G.C., Fairburn C.G.: Women with eating problems: A community survey. Cooper Z., Fairburn C.G.: The eating disorder examination: A semi-structured interview for the assessment of the specific psychopathology of eating disorders. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 6, 1–8, 1987.Google Scholar
  111. 113.
    Steiger H., Houle L.: Defense styles and object-relations disturbances among university women displaying varying degrees of “symptomatic” eating. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 10, 145–153, 1991.Google Scholar
  112. 114.
    Srikameswaran S., Leichner P., Harper D.: Sex role ideology among women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 3, 39–43, 1984.Google Scholar
  113. 115.
    Bailey W.T., Hamilton T.L.: Feminism and anorectic tendencies in college women. Psychol. Reports, 71, 957–958, 1992.Google Scholar
  114. 116.
    Crago M., Yates A., Fleischer C.A., Segerstrom B., Gray N.: The superwoman ideal and other risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescent girls. Sex Roles, 35, 801–810, 1996.Google Scholar
  115. 117.
    Steiner-Adair C.: The body politic: Normal female adolescent development and the development of eating disorders. J. Am. Acad. Psychoanal. 14, 95–114, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 118.
    Barris R.: Relationships between eating behaviors and person/environment interac-Reported sexual abuse and bulimic symptoms: Dissociation, 8, 155–159, 1995.Google Scholar
  117. 119.
    Berg K.M.: The prevalence of eating disorders in co-ed versus single-sex residence halls. Journal of College Student Development, 29, 125–131, 1988.Google Scholar
  118. 120.
    Gleaves D.H., Eberenz K.P.: Correlates of disassociative symptoms among women with eating disorders. J. Psychiatr. Res. 5, 417–426, 1995.Google Scholar
  119. 121.
    McManus F.: Dissociation and the severity of bulimic psychopathology among eating-disordered and non-eating-disordered women. European Eating Disorders Review, 3, 185–195, 1995.Google Scholar
  120. 122.
    Everill J.T., Waller G., Macdonald W.: Reported sexual abuse and bulimic symptoms: Dissociation, 8, 155–159, 1995.Google Scholar
  121. 123.
    Garner D.M., Garfinkel P.E., Stancer H.C., Moldofsky H.: Body image disturbances in anorexia nervosa and obesity. Psychosom. Med., 38, 227–327, 1976.Google Scholar
  122. 124.
    Garner D.M., Garfinkel P.E.: Body image in anorexia nervosa: measurement, theory and clinical implications. Int. J. Psychiatry Med., 12, 263–284, 1981.Google Scholar
  123. 125.
    Koff E., Sangani P.: Effects of coping style and negative body image on eating disturbance. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 22, 51–56, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 126.
    Santonastaso P., Favaro A., Ferrara S., Sala A., Zanetti T.: Prevalence of body image disturbance in a female adolescent sample: a longitudinal study. Eating Weight Disord., 3, 342–350, 1995.Google Scholar
  125. 127.
    Gross J., Rosen J.C.: Bulimia in adolescents: prevalence and psychosocial correlates. Int. J. Eating Disord., 7, 51–61, 1988.Google Scholar
  126. 128.
    LeGrange D., Tibbs J., Selibowitz J.: Eating attitudes, body shape, and self-disclosure in a community sample of adolescent girls and boys. Eating-Disorders, 3, 253–264, 1995.Google Scholar
  127. 129.
    Koenig L..J., Wasserman E.L.: Body image and dieting failure in college men and women: examining links between depression and eating problems. Sex Roles, 32, 225–249, 1995.Google Scholar
  128. 130.
    Hetherington M.M., Burnett L.: Aging and the pursuit of slimness: Dietary restraint and weight satisfaction in elderly women. Br. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 33, 391–400, 1994.Google Scholar
  129. 131.
    Raudenbush B., Zellner D.A.: Nobody’s satisfied: Effects of abnormal eating behaviors and actual and perceived weight status on body image satisfaction in males and females. J. Soc. Psychol. 16, 95–110, 1997.Google Scholar
  130. 132.
    Beebe D.W., Holmbeck G.N., Shcober A., Lane M., Rosa K.: Is body restricted to self-evaluation? Body focus in the evaluation of self and others. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 20, 415–422, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 133.
    Dittmar H., Blayney M.: Women’s self-reported eating behaviors and their responses to food and non-food television advertisements. European Eating Disorders Review, 4, 217–231, 1996.Google Scholar
  132. 134.
    Weinstein S.E., Shide D.J., Rolls B.J.: Changes in food intake in response to stress in men and women: psychological factors. Appetite, 28, 7–18, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 135.
    Haslam C., Stevens R., Haslam R.: Eating habits and stress correlates in a female student population. Work and Stress, 3, 327–334, 1989.Google Scholar
  134. 136.
    Meadows G.N., Palmer R.L., Newball U.M., Kenrick J.M.T.: Eating attitudes and disorder in young women: a general practice based survey. Psychol. Med., 16, 351–357, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 137.
    Hood J., Moore T.E., Garner D.M.: Locus of control as a measure of ineffectiveness in anorexia nervosa. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 50, 3–13, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 138.
    Harding T.P., Lachenmeyer J.R.: Family interaction patterns and locus of control as predictors of the presence and severity of anorexia nervosa. J. Clin. Psychol. 42, 440–448, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 139.
    Waller G.: Perceived control in eating disorders. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 23, 213–216, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 140.
    King M.B.: Locus of control in women with eating pathology. Psychol. Med., 19, 183–187, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 141.
    Groth-Marnat G., Schumaker J.F.: Locus of control and attitude toward eating in a female college population. Soc. Behav. Personal., 16, 19–23, 1988.Google Scholar
  140. 142.
    Wilson J.F., Mercer J.C.: An electrophysiological correlate of Eating Attitudes Test scores in female college students. Psychol. Med., 20, 973–975, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 143.
    Strober M.: Disorders of the self in anorexia nervosa: An organismic-developmental paradigm. In: Psychodynamic Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. New York, Guilford Press, 1991, pp. 354–373.Google Scholar
  142. 144.
    Waller G., Wood A., Miller J., Slade P.: The development of neurotic perfectionism: A risk factor for unhealthy eating attitudes. Br. Rev. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa, 6, 57–61, 1992.Google Scholar
  143. 145.
    Hewitt P.L., Flett G.L., Ediger E.: Perfectionism traits and perfectionistic self-preservation in eating disorder attitudes, characteristics and symptoms. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 18, 317–326, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 146.
    Pliner P., Haddock G.: Perfectionism in weight-concerned and unconcerned women: an experimental approach. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 19, 381–389, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 147.
    Aronson H., Fredman M., Gabriel M.: Personality correlates of eating attitudes in a nonclinical sample. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 9, 103–107, 1990.Google Scholar
  146. 148.
    Streigel-Moore R.H., Silberstein L.R., Rodin J.: The social self in bulimia nervosa: public self-consciousness, social anxiety, and perceived fraudulence. J. Abnorm. Psychol., 102, 297–303, 1993.Google Scholar
  147. 149.
    Groth-Marnat G., Schumaker J.F.: Hypnotizability, attitudes toward eating, and concern with body size in a female college population. Am. J. Clin. Hypnosis, 32, 194–200, 1990.Google Scholar
  148. 150.
    Berman K., Lam R.W., Goldner E.M.: Eating attitudes in seasonal affective disorder and bulimia nervosa. J. Affect. Disord., 29, 219–225, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 151.
    Bihun J.A.P., McSherry J., Marciano D.: Idiopathic edema and eating disorders: Evidence for an association. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 2,197–201, 1993.Google Scholar
  150. 152.
    Sullivan G., Blewett A.E., Jenkins P.L., Allison M.C.: Eating attitudes and the irritable bowel syndrome. General Hospital Psychiatry, 19, 62–64, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 153.
    Turton P., Hughes P., Bolton H., Sedgwick P.:Incidence and demographic correlates of Eating Disorder Symptoms in a pregnant population. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 26, 448–452, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 154.
    Baker C.W., Carter A.S., Cohen L.R., Brownell K.D.: Eating attitudes and behaviours in pregnancy and postpartum: global stability versus specific transitions. Ann. Behav. Med., 21, 143–148, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 155.
    Eisler G., Szmuckler G.I.: Social class as a confounding variable in the eating attitudes test. J. Psychiatr. Res., 19, 171–176, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 156.
    Buddeberg-Fischer B., Bernet R., Schmid J., Buddeberg C.: Relationship between disturbed eating behavior and other psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents. Psychother. Psychosom., 65, 319–326, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 157.
    Schmolling P.: Eating attitudes test scores in relation to weight, socioeconomic status, and family stability. Psychol. Reports, 63, 295–298, 1988.Google Scholar
  156. 158.
    Rosen J.C., Silberg N.T., Gross J.: Eating attitudes test and eating disorders inventory: Norms for adolescent girls and boys. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 56, 305–308, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 159.
    Slade P.D.: A short anorexic behaviour scale. Br. J. Psychiatry, 122, 83–85, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 160.
    Smith M.C., Thelen M.H.: Development and validation of a test for bulimia. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 52, 863–872, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 161.
    Hawkins R., Clement P.: Development and construct validation of a self-report measure of binge eating tendencies. Addict. Behav., 5, 219–226, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 162.
    Gormally J., Black S., Daston S., Rardin D.: The assessment of binge-eating severity among obese person. Addict. Behav., 7, 47–55, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 163.
    Dunn P., Ondercin P.: Personality variables related to compulsive eating in college women. J. Clin. Psychol. 37, 43–49, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 164.
    Henderson M., Freeman C.P.L.: A self-rating scale for bulimia: The “BITE”. Br. J. Psychiatry, 159, 18–24, 1987.Google Scholar
  163. 165.
    Stunkard A.J.: ‘Restrained eating’: what it is and a new scale to measure it. In: James W.P.J., Cioffi A., Van Itallie T.B. (Eds.), The body-weight regulatory system: normal and disturbed mechanisms. New york, 1981, pp. 243–251.Google Scholar
  164. 166.
    Roth D., Armstrong J.: Feelings of fatness questionnaire: a measure of the cross-situational variability of body experience. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 14, 349–358, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 167.
    Cooper P.J, Taylor M.J., Cooper Z., Fairburn C.G.: The development and validation of the body shape questionnaire. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 6, 485–494, 1986.Google Scholar
  166. 168.
    Evans C., Dolan B.: Body shape questionnaire: Derivation of shortened “alternate forms”. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 3, 315–321, 1993.Google Scholar
  167. 169.
    Srinivasan T.N., Suresh T.R., Jayaram V.: Emergence of eating disorders in India. Study of eating distress syndrome and development of a screening questionnaire. Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry, 44, 189–198, 1998.Google Scholar
  168. 170.
    Kiemle G., Slade P.D., Dewey M.E.: Factors associated with abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors: screening individuals at risk of developing an eating disorder. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 6, 713–724, 1987.Google Scholar
  169. 171.
    Raciti M.C., Norcross J.C.: The EAT and EDI: screening, interrelationships and psychometrics. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 6, 579–586, 1987.Google Scholar
  170. 172.
    Norring C.E.: The Eating Disorder Inventory: Its relation to diagnostic dimensions and follow-up status. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 9, 685–694, 1990.Google Scholar
  171. 173.
    Rosen J.C., Vara L., Wendt S., Leitenberg H.: Validity studies of the eating disorder examination. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 9, 519–528, 1990.Google Scholar
  172. 174.
    Beglin S.J., Fairburn C.G.: Evaluation of a new instrument for the detection of eating disorders in community samples. Psychiatr. Res., 44,191–201, 1992.Google Scholar
  173. 175.
    Johnson C., Powers P.S., Dick R.: Athletes and eating disorders: the National image distortion, depression and self-esteem between high-intensity male runners and women with bulimia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 7, 625–634, 1988.Google Scholar
  174. 176.
    Rippon C., Nash J., Myburgh K.H., Noakes T.D.: Abnormal eating attitude test scores predict menstrual dysfunction in lean females. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 7, 617–624, 1988.Google Scholar
  175. 177.
    Harris M.B., Greco D.: Weight control and weight concern in competitive female gymnasts. J. Sports Exerc. Psychol., 12, 427–433, 1990.Google Scholar
  176. 178.
    Warren B.J., Stanton A.L., Blessing D.L.: Disordered eating patterns in competitive female athletes. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 9, 565–569, 1990.Google Scholar
  177. 179.
    Nudelman S., Rosen J.C., Leitenberg H.: Dissimilarities in eating attitudes, body image distortion, depression and self-esteem between high-intensity male runners and women with bulimia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 7, 625–634, 1988.Google Scholar
  178. 180.
    Furnham A., Boughton J.: Eating behaviour and body dissatisfaction among dieters, aerobic exercisers and a control group. European Eating Disorders Review, 3, 35–45, 1995.Google Scholar
  179. 181.
    Slay H.A., Hayaki J., Napolitano M.A., Brownell K.D.: Motivations for running and eating attitudes in obligatory versus nonobligatory runners. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 23, 267–275, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 182.
    Yates A., Shisslak C.M., Allender J., Crago M., Leehey K.: Comparing obligatory to nonobligatory runners. Psychosom., 33, 180–189, 1992.Google Scholar
  181. 183.
    Wolf E.M., Akamatsu T.J.: Exercise involvement and eating-disordered characteristics in college students. Eating Disorders, 2, 308–318, 1994.Google Scholar
  182. 184.
    King M.B., Mezey G.: Eating behaviour of male racing jockeys. Psychol. Med., 17, 249–253, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 185.
    Stoutjesdyk D., Jevne R.: Eating disorders among high performance athletes. J. Youth Adolesc., 22, 271–282, 1993.Google Scholar
  184. 186.
    Picard C.L.: The level of competition as a factor for the development of eating disorders in female collegiate athletes. J. Youth Adolesc., 28, 583–594, 1999.Google Scholar
  185. 187.
    Marcus M.D., Wing R.R.: Cognitive treatment of binge eating, V: behavioral weight control in the treatment of binge eating disorder (letter). Ann. Behav. Med., 17, S090, 1995.Google Scholar
  186. 188.
    Garfinkel P.E., Garner D.M.: Anorexia nervosa: A multidimensional perspective. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1982.Google Scholar
  187. 189.
    Gaillac V., Samuel-Lajeunesse B.: Les obeses boulimiques: un sous-groupe meconnu. Societé Medico-Psychologique, 49, 440–443, 1991.Google Scholar
  188. 190.
    Radke-Sharpe N., Whitney-Saltiel D., Rodin J.: Fat distribution as a risk factor for weight and eating concerns. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 9, 27–36, 1990.Google Scholar
  189. 191.
    Wing R.R., Nowalk M.P., Marcus M.D., Koeske R., Finegold D.: Subclinical eating disorders and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 9, 162–167, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 192.
    Rodin G.M., Daneman D., Johnson L.E., Kenshole A., Garfinkel P.: Anorexia nervosa and bulimia in female adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: A systematic study. J. Psychiatr. Res., 19, 381–384, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 193.
    Rodin G.M., Johnson L.E., Garfinkel P.E., Daneman D., Kenshole A.B.: Eating disorders in female adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Int. J. Psychiatry Med., 16, 49–57, 1986-87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 194.
    Robertson P., Rosenvinge J.H.: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a risk factor in anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa? An empirical study of 116 women. J. Psychosom. Res., 34, 535–541, 1990.Google Scholar
  193. 195.
    Rosmark B., Berne C., Holmgren S., Lago C.: Eating disorders in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 47, 547–550, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 196.
    Steel J.M., Lloyd G.G., Young R.J., MacIntyre C.C.A.: Changes in eating attitudes during the first year of treatment for diabetes. J. Psychosom. Res., 34, 313–318, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 197.
    Rydall A.C., Rodin G.M., Olmsted M.P., Devenyi R.G., Daneman D.: Disordered eating behavior and microvascular complications in young women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N. Engl. J. Med., 336, 1849–1854, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 198.
    Garfinkel P.E., Lin E., Goering P., Spegg C., Goldbloom D., Kennedy S., Kaplan A.S. Woodside D.B.: Should amenorrhoea be necessary for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. Br. J. Psychiatry, 168, 500–506, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 199.
    Garfinkel P.E., Lin E., Goering P., Spegg C., Goldbloom D.S., Kennedy S., Kaplan A.S., Woodside D.B.: Bulimia nervosa in a Canadian community sample: prevalence and comparison of subgroups. Am. J. Psychiatry, 152, 1052–1058, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 200.
    DeGroot J.M., Kennedy S., Rodin G., McVey G.: Correlates of sexual abuse in women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Can. J. Psychiatry, 37, 516–518, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 201.
    Calam R.M., Slade P.D.: Sexual experience and eating problems in female undergraduates. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 4, 391–397, 1989.Google Scholar
  200. 202.
    Williams H.J., Wagner H.L., Calam R.M.: Eating attitudes in survivors of unwanted sexual experiences. Br. J. Clin. Psychol., 31, 203–206, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 203.
    Everill J., Waller G., Macdonald W.: Dissociation in bulimic and non-eating-disordered women. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 17, 127–134, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 204.
    Byram V., Wagner H.L.: Sexual abuse and body image distortion. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 507–510,1995.Google Scholar
  203. 205.
    Steinhausen H.C.: Transcultural comparison of eating attitudes in young females and anorectic patients.Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 234, 198–201,1984.Google Scholar
  204. 206.
    Lee A.M., Lee S.: Disordered eating and its psychosocial correlates among Chinese adolescent females in Hong Kong. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 20, 177–183,1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 207.
    Lake A.J., Staiger P.K., Glowinski H.: Effect of Western culture on women’s attitudes to eating and perceptions of body shape. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 27, 83–89, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 208.
    Nakamura Y.H., Watanabe A., Honda K., Niwa S., Tominaga K., Shimai S., Yamamoto M.: Problems in female Japanese high school students: a prevalence study. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 26, 91–95, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 209.
    Mukai T., Kambara A., Sasaki Y.: Body dissatisfaction, need for social approval, and eating disturbances among Japanese and American college women. Sex Roles, 39, 751–763, 1998.Google Scholar
  208. 210.
    Mukai T., McCloskey L.A.: Eating attitudes among Japanese and American elementary schoolgirls. J. Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27, 424–435, 1996.Google Scholar
  209. 211.
    Lippincott J.A., Hwang H.S.: On cultural similarities in attitudes toward eating of women students in Pennsylvania and South Korea. Psychol. Reports, 85, 701–702, 1999.Google Scholar
  210. 212.
    Stephens N.M., Schumaker J.F., Sibiya T.E.: Eating disorders and dieting behavior among Australian and Swazi university students. J. Soc. Psychol., 139, 153–158, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 213.
    Sjostedt J.P., Schumaker J.F., Nathawat S.S.: Eating disorders among Indian and Australian University students. J. Soc. Psychol., 138, 351–357, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 214.
    Boyadjieva S., Steinhausen S.C.: The eating attitudes test and the eating disorders inventory in four Bulgarian clinical and nonclinical samples. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 19, 93–98, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 215.
    Mumford D.B., Whitehouse A.M., Platts M.: Sociocultural correlates of eating disorders among Asian schoolgirls in Bradford. Br. J. Psychiatry, 158, 222–228, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 216.
    Furnham A., Patel R.: The eating attitudes and behaviours of Asian and British schoolgirls: a pilot study. Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry, 40, 214–226, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 217.
    Button E., Reveley C., Palmer R.: An ethnic comparison of eating attitudes and associated psychological problems in young British women. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 23, 317–323, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 218.
    McCourt J., Waller G.: Developmental role of perceived parental control in the eating psychopathology of Asian and Caucasian schoolgirls. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 17, 277–282, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 219.
    Ahmad S., Waller G., Verduyn C.: Eating attitudes among Asian schoolgirls: the role of perceived parental control. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 15, 91–97, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 220.
    Furnham A., Husaun K.: The role of conflict with parents in disordered eating among British Asian females. Soc. Psychiatry, 34, 498–505, 1999.Google Scholar
  219. 221.
    Nasser M.: Screening for abnormal eating attitudes in a population of Egyptian secondary school girls. Soc. Psychiatry, 29, 25–30, 1994.Google Scholar
  220. 222.
    Apter A., Shah M., Iancu I., Abramovitch H., Weizman A., Tanyo S.l.: Cultural effects on eating attitudes in Israeli sub-populations and hospitalised anorectics. Genet. Soc. Gen. Psychol. Monogr., 120, 83–99, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 223.
    Neumarker U., Dudeck U., Vollrath M., Neumarker K-J., Steinhausen H-C.: Eating attitudes among adolescent anorexia nervosa patients and normal subjects in former West and East Berlin: a transcultural comparison. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 12, 281–289, 1992.Google Scholar
  222. 224.
    Neumärker K.J., Bettle N., Bettle O., Dudeck U., Neumärker U.: The Eating Attitudes Test: comparative analysis of female and male students at the Public Ballet School of Berlin. Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 7, 19–23, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 225.
    Lee S., Lee A.M.: Disordered eating in three communities of China: a comparative study of female high school students in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Rural Hunan. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 27, 317–327, 1999.Google Scholar
  224. 226.
    Chamorro R., Flores-Ortiz Y.: Acculturation and disordered eating patterns among Mexican American women. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 28, 125–129, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 227.
    Pumariega A.: Acculturation and eating attitudes in adolescent girls: a comparative and correlational study. J. Am. Acad. Child Psychiatry, 2, 276–279, 1986.Google Scholar
  226. 228.
    Dulce M.J., George C., Hunter B., Lozzi M.: Do Cuban American women suffer from eating disorders? Effects of media exposure and acculturation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioural Sciences. Thousand Oaks, May, 1999.Google Scholar
  227. 229.
    Joiner G.W., Kashubeck S.: Acculturation, body image, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology in adolescent Mexican American women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 419–435, 1996.Google Scholar
  228. 230.
    Chandler S.B., Abood D.A., Lee D.T., Cleveland M.Z., Daly J.A.: Pathogenic eating attitudes and behaviors and body dissatisfaction differences among black and white college students. Eating Disorders, 2, 319–328, 1994.Google Scholar
  229. 231.
    Szabo C.P.: Eating attitudes among Black South Africans. Am. J. Psychiatry, 156, 6, 1999.Google Scholar
  230. 232.
    Indran S.K., Hatta M.: Brief report: eating attitudes among adolescent girls in a Malaysian secondary school using the eat questionnaire. Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry, 41, 299–302, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 233.
    Bruch H.: Eating disorders: Obesity, anorexia nervosa and the person within. New York, Basic Books, 1973.Google Scholar
  232. 234.
    Garfinkel P.E., Dorian B.D.: Factors that may influence future approaches to the eating disorders. Eating Weight Disord., 2, 1–16, 1997.Google Scholar
  233. 235.
    Garner D.M., Garner M.V., Rosen L.W.: Anorexia nervosa “restricters” who purge: implications for subtyping anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 13, 171–185, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 236.
    Garfinkel P.E., Kennedy S., Kaplan A.S.: Diagnosis and classification of the eating disorders. Can. J. Psychiatry, 40, 445–456, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 237.
    Newton T., Butler N., Slade P.: Denial of symptoms and self-report in eating disorders. Br. Rev. Bulimia Anorexia Nervosa, 2, 55–59, 1988.Google Scholar
  236. 238.
    Vanderdeycken W., Vanderlinden J.: Denial of illness and the use of self-reporting measures in anorexia nervosa patients. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 2, 101–107, 1983Google Scholar
  237. 239.
    Kaplan A.S., Garfinkel P.E.: Difficulties in treating patients with eating disorders: a review of patient and clinician variables. Can. J. Psychiatry, 44, 665–670, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 240.
    Johnson-Sabine E., Wod K., Patton G., Mann A., Wakeling A.: Abnormal eating attitudes in London schoolgirls — a prospective epidemiological study: factors associated with abnormal response on screening questionnaires. Psychol. Med., 18, 615–622, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 241.
    Koslowsky M., Scheinberg Z., Bleich A., Mark M.: Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value as measures of prediction accuracy: the case of the EAT-26. Educational-and-Psychological-Measurement, 53, 831–839, 1993.Google Scholar
  240. 242.
    Williams P., Hand D., Tarnopolsky A.: The problem of screening for uncommon disorders — a comment on the Eating Attitudes Test. Psychol. Med. 12. 431–434, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 243.
    Joffe R.T., Swinson R.P.: Eating Attitudes Test scores of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry, 144, 1510–1511, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 244.
    Yates W.R., Sieleni B., Bowers W.A.: Clinical correlates of personality disorder in bulimia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 8, 473–477, 1989.Google Scholar
  243. 245.
    Dolan B., Evans C., Norton K.: Disordered eating behavior and attitudes in female and male patients with personality disorders. J. Person. Disord., 8, 17–27, 1994.Google Scholar
  244. 246.
    Kent A., Goddard K.L. van-den-Berk P.A.H. Raphael F.J., McClusky S.E., Lacey J.H.: Eating disorder in women admitted to hospital following deliberate self-poisoning. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 95, 140–144, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 247.
    Carter A.S., Baker C.W., Brownell K.D.: Body mass index, eating attitudes, and symptoms of depression and anxiety in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Psychosom. Med., 62, 264–270, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 248.
    Choudry I.Y., Mumford D.B., Whitehouse A.M.: Survey of eating disorders in English-medium schools in Lahore, Pakistan. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 11, 173–184, 1992.Google Scholar
  247. 249.
    King M.B., Bhugra D.: Eating disorders: lessons from a cross-cultural study. Psychol. Med., 19, 955–958, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 250.
    Whitaker A., Johnson J., Shaffer D., Rapoport J.L., Kalikow K., Walsh B.T., Davies M., Braiman S., Dolinsky A.: Uncommon troubles in young people: prevalence estimates of selected psychiatric disorders in a nonreferred adolescent population. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 47,487–496, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 251.
    Whitehouse A.M., Adams R., March J.: Are there hidden eating disorders among psychiatric inpatients? Int. J. Eat. Disord., 8, 235–238, 1989.Google Scholar
  250. 252.
    Turner M.St.J., Foggo M., Bennie J., Carrroll S., Dick H., Goodwin G.M.: Psychological, hormonal and biochemical changes following carbohydrate bingeing: a placebo controlled study in bulimia nervosa and matched controls. Psychol. Med., 21, 123–133, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 253.
    Foulon C., Samuel-Lajeunesse S.: Particularités évolutives des schizophrènes présentant des troubles des conduites alimentaires. Société Médico-Psychologique. 150, 436–439, 1992.Google Scholar
  252. 254.
    Lam R.W., Goldner E.M., Solyom L., Remick R.A.: A controlled study of light therapy for bulimia nervosa. Am. J. Psychiatry, 151, 744–750, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 255.
    Kirkley B.G., Schneider J.A., Agras W. S., Bachman J.A.: Comparison of two group treatments for bulimia. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 53, 43–48, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 256.
    Sansone R.A., Fine M.A.: Borderline personality as a predictor of outcome in women with eating disorders. J. Person. Disord., 6, 176–186, 1992.Google Scholar
  255. 257.
    Woodside D.B., Kaplan A.S.: Day hospital treatment in males with eating disorders — response and comparison to females. J. Psychosom. Res., 38, 471–475, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 258.
    Hsu L.K.G.: Treatment of bulimia with lithium. Am. J. Psychiatry, 141, 1260–1262, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 259.
    Ash J.B., Piazza E., Anderson J.L.: Light therapy in the clinical management of an eating-disordered adolescent with winter exacerbation. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 23, 93–97, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 260.
    Rosenvinge J.H., Mouland S.O.: Outcome and prognosis of anorexia nervosa. A retrospective study of 41 subjects. Br. J. Psychiatry, 156, 92–97, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Editrice Kurtis 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul E. Garfinkel
    • 1
  • A. Newman
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations