Development and evaluation of biodiesel fuel and by-products from jatropha oil

  • G. El Diwani
  • N. K. AttiaEmail author
  • S. I. Hawash


Biodiesel is an environmentally friend renewable diesel fuel alternative. Jatropha seeds can be a feedstock to produce a valuable amount of oil to be converted to biodiesel using transesterification reaction. Jatropha plant has been successfully grown in southern Egypt using primary treated municipal wastewater for its irrigation. Abench scale production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil (using methyl alcohol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst) was developed with methyl esters yield of 98 %. Biodiesel was produced on a pilot scale based on the bench scale experiment results with almost the same methyl esters yield of 98 %. The produced biodiesel was evaluated as a fuel and compared with petroleum diesel according to its physical and chemical parameters such as viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, carbon residue, acid value and calorific value. The experimental techniques and product evaluation results show that such properties of the produced biodiesel are near to that of petroleum diesel. A mass balance representing the transesterification process is presented in this study. Glycerol of 85 % purity was produced and evaluated as a valuable byproduct of the process. Free fatty acids and sodium phosphate salts which have industrial interesting are also produced and evaluated.


Transesterification biofuel glycerol methanolysis fatty acids pilot plant 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alptekin, E.; Canakci, M., (2008). Characterization of the key fuel properties of methyl ester-diesel fuel blends. Fuel, 88(1), 75–80 (6 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antolin, G.; Tinaut, F. V.; Briceno, Y.; Castano, V.; Perez, C.; Ramirez, A. I., (2002). Optimisation of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification. Bioresour. Tech., 83(2), 111–114 (4 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldwin, J. D.; Kilmowski, C. H.; Keesy, M. A., (1982). Fuel additives for vegetable oil-fueled compression ignition engines. Vegetable oil fuels. Proceedings of the international conference on plant and vegetable oils as fuels, ASAE, 82(4), 224.Google Scholar
  4. Boehman, A. L., (2005). Foreword biodiesel production and processing. Fuel Process. Tech., 86(10), 1057–1058 (2 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bouaid, A.; Diaz, Y.; Martinez, M.; Aracil, J., (2005). Pilot plant studies of biodiesel production using Brassica carinata as raw material. Catal. Today. 106(1–4), 193–196 (4 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dorado, M. P.; Ballesteros, E.; Lopez, F. J.; Mittelbach, M., (2004). Optimization of alkali-catalyzed transesterification of brassica oil for biodiesel production. Energ. Fuel, 18(1), 77–83 (7 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Encinar, J. M.; Gonzalez, J. F.; Rodriguez-Reinares, A., (2007). Ethanolysis of used frying oils, biodiesel preparation and characterization. Fuel Proc. Tech., 88(5), 513–522 (10 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fuls, J.; Hawkins, C. S.; Hugo, F. J. C., (1984). Tractor engine performance on sunflower oil fuel. J. Agri. Eng., 30, 29–35 (7 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Haas, M. J., (2005). Improving the economics of biodiesel production through the use of low value lipids as feedstock: Vegetable oil soapstock. Fuel Proc. Tech., 86(10) 1087–1096 (10 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kayasiri, P.; Jeyashoke, N.; Krisangkura, K., (1996). Survey of seed oils for use as diesel fuels. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 73(4), 471–474 (4 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Knothe, G.; Steidley, K. R., (2005). Kinematic viscosity of biodiesel fuel components and related compounds. Influence of compound structure and comparison to petrodiesel fuel components, Fuel, 84(9), 1059–1065 (7 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ma, F.; Hanna, M. A., (1999). Biodiesel production: A review. Bioresour. Tech., 70(1) 1–15 (15 pages) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Meher, L. C.; Dharmagadda, S. S. V.; Naik, S. N., (2006a). Optimization of alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil for production of biodiesel. Bioresour. Tech., 97(12), 1392–1397 (6 pages) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Meher, L. C.; Sagar, D. V.; Naik S. N., (2006b). Technical aspects of biodiesel production by trasesrerification: A review. Renew Sust. Energ. Rev., 10(3) 248–268 (21 pages) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Peterson, C. L.; Wanger, G. L.; Auld, D. L., (1983). Vegetable oil substitutes for diesel fuel. T. ASAE, 26,(2), 322–327 (6 pages) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Phan, A. N.; Phan, T. M., (2008). Biodiesel production from waste cooking oils. Fuel, 87(17–18), 3490–3496 (7 pages) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ryan, T. W.; Dodge, G.; Callahan, T. J., (1984). The effects of vegetable oil properties on injection and combustion in two different diesel engines. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 61(10) 1610–1619 (10 pages) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Saifuddin, N.; Chua, K. H., (2004). Production of ethyl ester (biodiesel) from used frying oils: Optimization transesterification process using microwave irradiation. Malaysian J. Chem., 6(1) 77–82 (6 pages) Google Scholar
  19. Schlautman, N. J.; Schinstock, J. L.; Hanna M. A., (1986). Unrefined expelled soybean oil performance in a diesel engine. T. ASAE, 29(1), 70–73 (4 pages) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Srivastava, A.; Prasad, R., (2000). Triglycerides-based diesel fuels. Renew Sust. Energ. Rev., 4(2), 111–133 (23 pages) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tiwari, A. K.; Kumar, A.; Raheman, H., (2007). Biodiesel production from jatropha oil (Jatropha curcas) with high free fatty acid: An optimized process. Biomass Bioenerg., 31(8) 569–575 (7 pages) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tomasevic, A. V.; Siler-Marinkove, S. S., (2003). Methanolysis of used frying oil. Fuel Process. Tech., 81(1), 1–6 (6 pages) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Van Der Wat, A. N.; Hugo, F. J. C., (1982). Attempts to prevent injector cooking with sunflower oil by engine modifications and fuel additives. Vegetable Oil fuels, Proceedings of the international conference on plant and vegetable oils as fuels, ASAE, 82(4) 230.Google Scholar
  24. Van Gerpen, J., (2005). Biodiesel processing and production. Fuel Proc. Tech., 86(10), 1097–1107 (11 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vicente, G.; Martinez, M.; Aracil, J., (2004). Integrated biodiesel production: A comparison of different homogeneous catalysts systems. Bioresour. Tech., 92(3), 297–305 (9 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wan Nik, W. B.; Ani, F. N.; Masjuki, H. H., (2005). Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media. Energ. Convers. Manage., 46(13–14), 2198–2215 (18 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang, Y.; Ou, S.; Liu, P.; Xue, F.; Tang, S., (2006). Comparison of two different processes to synthesize biodiesel by waste cooking oil. J. Mol. Catal. A-Chem., 252(1–2), 107–112 (6 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant DepartmentNational Research CenterDokkiEgypt

Personalised recommendations